Opened in August 27, 2006 (construction took two years and cost a total of $30 million), the postmodern Glass Pavilion is the new home of the Toledo Museum of Art’s world-renowned glass collection, featuring more than 5,000 works of art from ancient to contemporary times. The glass building was designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, lead architects of SANAA (Sejima and Nishizawa and Associates), a Tokyo-based firm known for designing attractive and functional museums that relate well to their sites, and for using architectural glass with extraordinary skill.
附記：1956年出生於茨城縣的妹島和世(Kazuyo Sejima)是日本相當知名的女建築師，1981年自日本女子大學研究生院畢業後，便於伊東豐雄(Toyo Ito)的建築事務所服務，1987年成立自己的建築事務所。1995年妹島和世與另一位日本當代建築師西澤立衛(Ryue Nishizawa)成立SANAA建築設計事務所，2004年兩人以金澤21世紀美術館贏得當年威尼斯建築雙年展金獅獎；2010年更獲選為普立茲克獎得主(The Pritzker Architecture Prize)。妹島和世與SANAA建築設計事務所所設計的作品，擅長大量運用玻璃建材，營造出具有穿透性的風格，以其明亮、簡約的美感、純熟的手法與流動通透的空間感驚豔八方，對於建築物外觀的高度原創性也令人印象深刻。 Glass Pavilion為SANAA在美國的第一個案例，這個以收藏玻璃藝術作品為主的博物館，在建築上充分反映了Toledo這個城市做為玻璃製造生產中心的歷史。
Located directly across Monroe Street from the Toledo Museum of Art, the Glass Pavilion’s site imposed a number of constraints on its architects. To the south, it faced the main museum’s 1912 colonnaded front. To the north and west, it needed to address the residential scale of the Old West End, a leafy, affluent neighborhood of Victorian and Edwardian houses.
p.s. Main Museum: Since 1912, the Toledo Museum of Art’s Greek Ionic façade has graced the city as both landmark and legacy. The distinguished low and horizontal white marble building, designed by Edward B. Green and Harry W. Wachter, is articulated by a row of 16 columns, a copper roof, and a frieze of acanthus leaves. It has been renovated and expanded four times since then. In 2008 and 2011, as part of the Museum’s green initiatives, solar panels were installed on the roof of the main building to maximize operational efficiency through renewable energy.
One of the distinguishing features of this 74,000 square feet, low(only 15 feet tall), two floors(including a basement) pavilion is that all of the exterior and nearly all interior walls (except for opaque walls enclosing toilets, plumbing, roof drains, elevators, and diagonal bracing) are large panels of curved glass, resulting in a transparent structure that blurs the boundaries between interior and exterior spaces. It was a pretty marvelous feat of architecture to make it look like it’s floating in the park.
p.s. The glass walls, which are 3/4” thick at the exterior and 1/2” thick at the interior, are low-iron glass coated to prevent water streaking, spotting, and dirt and contaminant build-up. There are 376 glass panels make up the glass walls measures approximately 8 feet wide by 13 ½ feet high, and weighs from 1,300 to 1,500 pounds.
The glass pavilion façade features two parallel glass walls with a gap between them. And this aspect continues throughout the interior. In a typical building, one wall divides two spaces. But in this museum, any two galleries have two walls of curving glass between them. A cavity of nearly 1m lies between the layers of glass. The size of the gap varies, because the walls curve in irregular ways for the sake of variety.
SANAA has laid out the Glass Pavilion’s main level like a bubble diagram of exhibition spaces, for the museum’s extensive glass collection, and studio spaces, including two hot shops, for glass artists. Each of the programmatic elements is defined by a simply shaped space with rounded corners, constructed mainly in glass.
p.s. This 243 pieces of chandelier(Campiello del Remer #2) is only half of the original Dale Chihuly’s installation in Venice. The other half goes to the Kemper Museum in Kansas City.
Tiffany Stained-Glass Windows: These four windows from Tiffany Studios are on long-term loan to the Museum from the Historic Woodlawn Cemetery in Toledo. They were purchased for private family mausoleums between 1914 and 1929.
Two hot shops, equipped with glass furnaces continuously burning at 2150 degrees Fahrenheit, encourage visitor interaction with glass artists and an opportunity to understand the glass making process.
Lino Tagliapietra Venetian Glass Birds Exhibition (March 28 -July 9): The distinguished Venetian Maestro Lino Tagliapietra (born 1934), the greatest living master of Venetian glass technology, recently created three series of elegant sculptural bird forms in glass. The exhibition of these evocative works is in celebration of the annual spring songbird migration through the marshes along the southern shore of Lake Erie. On view in Gallery 2 of the Glass Pavilion, the 21 colorful pieces selected for this show represent the theme of birds in three distinct series.
The birds are very abstract, very beautiful and very colorful, while the techniques Lino Tagliapietra’s using are centuries old.
p.s. Toledo—The Glass City When TMA co-founder Edward Drummond Libbey moved his family’s New England Glass Works in 1888 from Massachusetts to Ohio, he set the stage for Toledo to become “The Glass City"—a center of innovation in glass tableware, industrial glass design, and art in glass. In 1913, Libbey purchased the first of several significant glass collections. The group of 53 European Renaissance and Baroque glasses came from the estate of German publisher Julius Heinrich Wilhelm Campe. With this purchase, the Museum acquired the most important historic European glass collection in the United States at the time, and many of the rare objects remain the only examples of their kind in the country. In 1962, the Studio Glass Movement was born in a garage on the Museum grounds. In 1969, the Toledo Museum of Art constructed the Glass-Crafts Building, becoming the first museum to build a facility and studio specifically designed for teaching glass working techniques. That tradition was reinforced in 2006 with the construction of the Museum’s Glass Pavilion. Today, even as the manufacturing age has declined, the tremendous growth of “green” industries has kept Toledo on the forefront of glass production. The Glass City is home to dozens of solar energy companies that turn Glass City to Solar Valley.
Toledo Museum of Art Glass Pavilion 地址：2445 Monroe Street, Toledo, OH
電話：(419) 255-8000 網址：http://www.toledomuseum.org/