東方巴黎之旅:越南胡志明市(Ho Chi Minh City)景點篇 2014/04/10 ~ 2014/04/13

French colonial architecture beauty:同起街Dong Khoi Street                                 Home to many French colonial buildings, Dong Khoi Street has witnessed many changes in Ho Chi Minh City.                                                                                                                                 During the French occupation, Dong Khoi Street was called Rue Catinat. It became Tu Do or Freedom Street during the Vietnam War. When the Communists took over Saigon in the late 1970s, the name changed again to Dong Khoi, which means Total Revolution. The street has gone from being the centre of glamour in the French colony to the centre of sleaze and intrigue during the Vietnam War. In the late 70s and early 80s when commerce was a dirty word in post war Vietnam, Dong Khoi’s shutters came down. But a fourth era began in this street’s story almost two decades ago and Dong Khoi Street is once again at the commercial heart of the city.

map                                Dong Khoi Street lies from the south point of Saigon river up north to the Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica (over 600 meters long).

HCMC 007          HCMC 002

HCMC 004          HCMC 003

HCMC 008-1          HCMC 008

HCMC 030          HCMC 015

Along Dong Khoi Street, there are a lot of handicraft shops, cloth and décor designers’ boutiques, local and international restaurants, huge shopping complex, and hotels. Especially, on this street are three original French architectural works: The Saigon Opera House built in 1897 by French architect Ferret Eugene, Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica – a cathedral established by French colonists and constructed between 1863 and 1880 and Saigon Central Post Office (1891) designed and constructed by the famous architect Gustave Eiffel. They are all famous tourist attractions which draw the attention of millions of visitors every year.

胡志明市大劇院(The Municipal Theatre of Ho Chi Minh City, also known as Saigon Opera House)                                                                                                                    胡志明市大劇院位於市中心第1郡,興建於1897年法國殖民時期(designed by French architect Eugène Ferret),在當時稱為西貢歌劇院。1956年越南戰爭期間,此劇院成為越南共和國的下議院會場;1975年,北越共產軍隊佔領西貢,越南南北統一,這座建築才恢復原本的文藝設施功能。劇院平日不開放遊客參觀,不過每逢表演期間,劇院門口便熱鬧異常。

HCMC 009Its architectural style is influenced by the flamboyant style of the French Third Republic, with the façade shaped like the Petit Palais which was built in the same year in France. The house had a main seating floor plus two levels of seating above, and was capable of accommodating 1,800 people. The design of all the inscriptions, décor, and furnishings were drawn by a French artist and sent from France.

郵政總局(Saigon Central Post Office)                                                                                     這間美麗的法式建築位於胡志明市市中心第1郡與西貢王公聖母教堂(Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica)相鄰,為巴黎艾菲爾鐵塔的設計師Gustave Eiffel所設計,興建於1886~1891年間,1892年正式啟用。這是郵政與電信總局,是越南最大的郵政局,同時也是法國殖民時期的第一座郵政局,建築風格充滿法式風情,拱型門窗、中央大廳的大鐘,加上均衡對稱的設計以及綠色的百頁窗,有著歐洲19世紀末的公共建築風格。

HCMC 029          HCMC 018

Being a mixture of Gothic, Renaissance and French influences, this building fascinates tourists by its typical colonial French features, from exterior to interior decorations. It has a neoclassical architectural style.

HCMC 020            HCMC 027

Walking inside, the vaulted roof and arched windows are reminiscent of early European railway stations, rather than a post office in an Asian country.

HCMC 026          HCMC 021

郵政總局內部相當寬敞,以簡單的綠色鐵條裝飾排水管;大型胡志明肖像掛置於大廳顯眼位置,兩旁的牆壁上則是越南的舊地圖,舊地圖下設有特色電話亭,兩側則設有紀念品店。

HCMC 022

HCMC 024The Post Office offers all kinds of traditional postal services like mailing, selling postcards or stamps.

HCMC 025          image                                         Don’t ignore Mr. Duong Van Ngo – an old man sitting at the end of a long wooden table underneath a mural of Ho Chi Minh, behind the sign “Information and Writing Assistance/Public Writer”. Mr. Ngo has been working here since he was 17, as a polyglot public letter writer. Being the last letter writer in old Saigon, he says he never missed a day of work, not even during the wars. He speaks the languages of the former occupiers fluently to this day.                                                                                                                               p.s.Mr. Ngo learned French in school and English from American soldiers.

西貢王公聖母教堂(Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica, officially Basilica of Our Lady of The Immaculate Conception)                                                                                  這座由法國人建造的聖母院因其磚紅色的外觀又名「紅教堂」。早在16世紀起,西班牙、葡萄牙和法國傳教士就已經陸續的將天主教傳入越南,至今全越南約有9百萬名的天主教徒,可說是亞洲地區繼菲律賓之後第2大的天主教國家。

HCMC 019To people’s amazement, the two bell towers, each with the height of 60.5m and 6 bronze bells have just been added in 1895.

HCMC 032          HCMC 031-1

教堂興建於1863~1880年間,為天主教胡志明市總教區的主教座堂,也是該市最大的教堂。建築為新羅馬式風格(neo-Romanesque structure),紅磚建材全部從法國馬賽進口,就連56片彩色鑲嵌玻璃和地磚,也都是在法國的沙特省製作。

Insidechurch(via Wikimedia)

HCMC 017在教堂前面的花園廣場上,佇立一座重達4公噸的聖母瑪麗亞雕像,為西元1945年羅馬教會所贈。

p.s.Bishop Lefevre put the first stone for construction of the church on 28 March 1863. Initially, it was called Saigon Church. The name Notre-Dame Cathedral was given after Bishop Pham Van Thien held a ceremony to install the statue of Peaceful Notre Dame, made with granite from Rome, in 1959. In 1962, the Vatican conferred the Cathedral status as a basilica and gave it the official name of Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica.

HCMC 001          HCMC 001-2                   A walk along Dong Khoi Street will showcase most of what remains in terms of grand French colonial architecture in the city. However, it’s disappearing rapidly.

City Hall:胡志明市人民委員會大廳Ho Chi Minh City People’s Committee Head office                                                                                                                                                                         位於胡志明市市中心第1郡的市政廳是胡志明市委員會辦公室,興建於1902年, 落成於1908年。原名「西社宮Hotel de Ville」,1975年改名為「胡志明市人民委員會大廳」,不對外開放。

HCMC 014On the roof is a bell tower placed on a pyramid-shaped podium.

HCMC 011市政廳前的公園裡設有胡志明雕像

A witness of history:統一宮Reunification Palace (formerly known as Independence Palace)                                                                                                                  統一宮的前身為興建於法屬印度支那時期,作為交趾支那總督辦公室的諾羅敦宮(Norodom Palace, designed by the French in 1868))。

HCMC 072-1

The complex covered an area of 12 hectares, including a palace with an 80-meter-wide façade, a guest-chamber capable of accommodating 800 people, with a spacious gardens covered by green trees and a lawn.

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1954年法軍於奠邊府戰役失利後,根據日內瓦協定退出越南,諾羅敦宮被移交給越南共和國的總統吳廷琰(Ngô Đình Diệm),更名為獨立宮。

HCMC 082

1962年2月27日西貢軍隊的兩名叛軍飛行員對獨立宮投彈炸毀左半邊,由於無法修復,吳廷琰乃決定全部改建,聘請留學巴黎的建築師吳曰樹設計(Ngô Viết Thụ, a Vietnamese architect who won the First Grand Prize of Rome in 1955),根據中國風水把平面設計為「吉」字,代表幸運之意,正面中央呈「興」字狀,祈求國家興盛(constructed on July 1st , 1962)。然而,此宮尚未建完,吳廷琰便遭刺殺身亡,因此1966年10月31日主持落成典禮者是阮文紹(Nguyễn Văn Thiệu)。

HCMC 043

依風水,獨立宮坐落在一個「龍頭」上,因此該宮又稱為龍頭宮(Dragon’s Head Palace)。It includes 4 main floors, 2 mezzanines, ground floor, and a basement.

HCMC 330-1

HCMC 044-11樓左右兩側分別是宴會室與內閣會議室

HCMC 046Conference Hall

HCMC 330-22樓有總統指揮作戰所、總統私人辦公室以及由一對泰王所贈象牙隔開的總統接見內外賓室、副總統辦公室,還有用40片漆木嵌成之大幅越南國畫為背景的呈遞國書室。

HCMC 049                                                                                      Map Room

HCMC 061圓形地毯的兩側分別為總統、副總統辦公室

HCMC 050          HCMC 051

2樓漂亮的窗、景

HCMC 053          HCMC 058

HCMC 056Credentials Presenting Room—The furnishings and pictures in this room are in fine Japanese-style lacquer-work, created by the artist Nguyen Van Minh. The larger painting in 40 small panels entitled “Declaration of victory over the Ming" depicts a famous scene from the reign of King Lê Lợi.

HCMC 330-33樓為阮文紹的私人圖書館以及夫人的宴會廳,還有可容納約50人的電影放映室及娛樂室。

HCMC 067-1Heliport—The two circles painted on the helipad mark the spot where a bombload was dropped on the Palace by pilot Nguyễn Thành Trung on 8 April 1975.

HCMC 330-44樓為為舉行宴會的四方廳(Salon of the 4 Cardinal Directions)

HCMC 075Dancing Floor

HCMC 330-b

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新的獨立宮擁有堅固的地下室,這裏也是越戰時的指揮作戰中心,牆上掛滿作戰地圖與軍力表,這些自1975年北越政府接收後都沒有動過,目前整座獨立宮仍維持當初的模樣。

HCMC 078          Warroom

1975年4月30日上午11:30,越共的坦克攻入獨立宮,西貢淪陷,犧牲了無數人民與5萬8千多名美軍性命的越戰結束,「獨立」也就被以「統一」之名給取代。

HCMC 041          HCMC 042These tanks are identical to the armoured vehicles from Tank Corps 203, 2nd Army, that made the famous break-through into the Palace grounds through the great Palace gate on 30 April 1975.

p.s.On August 12th, 2009, Reunification Palace was recognized as a special National Historical relic by the Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

HCMC 052-1Near Reunification Palace is 30-4 Park, one of the best HCMC green spaces.

HCMC 052          HCMC 03730-4 Park takes its name from Vietnam’s Reunification Day as April 30 marked the fall of Saigon. It offers a cool respite courtesy of its tall trees and it connects Reunification Palace with Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica.

 

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