前些時日在電視新聞裡討論起近年來因為房價過高，有愈來愈多的年輕人改住造價約20萬元的貨櫃屋。隨著鏡頭一帶，這些制式的貨櫃屋，果然是以經濟因素為考量，一切從簡，跟印象中的工寮鐵皮屋其實沒有多大差別；而這個景象，反倒比起討論貨櫃屋所帶來的空地法規及安全等問題，更令我驚訝：怎麼可能在國外已經發展到極致、各式各樣好玩點子層出不窮的Shipping Container Architecture，在台灣卻依然停留在臨時、急就章，毫無設計、美感可言的「違章建築」巢臼裡？
A Short History of Shipping Container Architecture: 8 feet wide by 8.5 feet high, and either 20 or 40 feet long, the steel shipping container has been the globally standardized transportation module since 1956 by Malcolm Mclean. In 1987, Philip C. Clark filed for a US patent for his “method for converting one or more steel shipping containers into a habitable building.” Clark, and others who saw the potential in these massive containers, were “green” ahead of their time! Shipping Container Architecture is a style of architecture that has been gaining popularity in recent years. Today, architects and designers repurpose the steel enclosures, utilizing their flexible and adaptable nature, which means that they can be constructed almost anywhere.
首先登場的當然是2011/12/13 Starbucks在Tukwila, Washington，以四個舊貨櫃打造的Drive-Thru Café。這是繼在全球推廣LEED綠色認證門市之後，Starbucks對環保所作的新嘗試，也是我開始關注Shipping Container Architecture的第一個例子。
p.s. 台灣第一家星巴克Drive Thru門市，即將在三月底於台南永康開幕。
Starbucks Made From Shipping Containers—http://www.starbucks.com/ This Starbucks drive-through/walk-up location in the Seattle suburb Tukwila is made of four recycled shipping containers. That crazy idea came from their extensive use of these containers to ship their coffee and tea from all over the world.
The coffee conglomerate hopes to use containers for short or long-term cafes on future properties and possibly use them as temporary solutions when stores close for remodeling.
Econtainer Bridge by Yoav Messer Architects Ltd—http://www.messer-architects.co.il/The 160 meters long bridge will be the gateway to Ariel Sharon Park and will connect Lod road straight to the center of Hiriya Mountain Park. The bridge will be used by pedestrians, bicycle riders and special vehicles that will function as shuttles to transport the public from the parking areas into the park itself.
Coca-Cola EKOCENTER by Coca-Cola Company and DEKA R&D— http://www.coca-colacompany.com
EKOCENTER is a modularly designed kiosk with ‘slingshot’ technology at its core, transformed from a 20-foot shipping container with solar panel awnings into a local community hub, offering clean, safe drinking water, alongside other services, such as access to wireless communication, electricity, vaccination storage, and more tailored to address community needs. The ‘slingshot’ water purification system—developed in partnership with DEKA R&D – uses vapor compression distillation technology to turn any source of dirty water – river water, ocean water and even raw sewage – into safe, clean drinking water. The system delivers approximately 800 liters of clean water daily at the hourly electricity cost of less than a standard handheld hair dryer (1kwh).
Bharati Antarctic Research Station by Bof Arkitekten—http://bof-architekten.de/en/Situated on a peninsula in northeastern Antarctica, the ‘Bharati Antarctic Research Station’ by Hamburg-based Bof Arkitekten presents a self-sufficient energy facility comprising of 134 shipping containers wrapped with an insulating aerodynamic metal skin. The 2,500 sq m (27,000 sq ft) development, which was awarded by the national center for Antarctic and ocean research in 2006, is conceived as an architectural volume that can easily be completely dis-assembled due to the restricted accessibility within the region.
12 Container House by Architecture and Hygiene—http://architectureandhygiene.com/ 12 Container House is a prefab home, it was created by stacking a dozen orange “reclaimed” shipping containers in a T-shape looking out over the rocky peninsula to Blue Hill Bay.
Bunny Lane by Architecture and Hygiene—http://architectureandhygiene.com/
A house within another, bigger house, this design is located on 3 acres of property in Kalkin’s home state of New Jersey. The outer shell is a modern, industrial shed with unusual shaped, custom roll-up doors and 3 stories of rooms on one end.
Keetwonen (Amsterdam Student Housing) by Tempohousing—http://www.tempohousing.com/Keetwonen is the name of the biggest container city in the world (33000 sq. m) according to Tempohousing, a modular design firm based in the Netherlands. Built for temporary student housing, there are 1000 units arranged in blocks creating a new community, which include a cafe, supermarket, office space, and even a sports area.
Although the project was initially meant to only stay on this site for 5 years (and to be relocated after that – container homes are ideal for that, you move and you take your house with you!), it is expected that the relocation will be postponed until 2016. p.s. The project started at the end of 2005 (first 60 homes commissioned) and was completed mid 2006.
The Nomadic Museums by Shigeru Ban(坂茂) Architects—Canadian artist Gregory Colbert’s Nomadic Museum is a purpose-built temporary structure used to house his traveling “Ashes and Snow” film and photography exhibition. The first Nomadic Museum, designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban and engineers Buro Happold, debuted with the opening of Ashes and Snow in New York City in March 2005. The museum then traveled to Santa Monica, California, in 2006, Tokyo in 2007. (http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com)
The Nomadic Museum is charted to travel the globe with no final destination.
Nomadic Museum, Santa Monica, 2006 The site in Santa Monica was unlike that of New York’s long pier structure but was shorter and much wider. The original 200m long gallery was divided into two 100m lengths and arranged parallel to each other with a spacing of the same width as the gallery.
In the Spring of 2007 the museum was transported to Tokyo where it took the same shape as in Santa Monica.
p.s. Pritzker Prize 2014 Goes to Shigeru Ban, the Architect of Relief
FREITAG Flagship Store Zürich by Spillmann Echsle Architekten—http://www.spillmannechsle.ch/wp/?cat=1 19 re-used overseas containers were specially selected in Hamburg and transported to Zurich by rail, where they were stacked and mounted with the same elements that are also used in the shipping industry. Large window openings provide the showrooms with daylight, and allow views in both directions: from the inside out and vice versa.
PUMA City by LOT-EK—http://www.lot-ek.com/Twenty-four(40-foot long) shipping containers are retrofitted and transformed into PUMA City, a transportable retail and event building. The building was assembled and disassembled a number of times at several different international ports. At 11,000 square feet of space, it is the first(2008) container building of its scale to be truly mobile.
The structure is comprised of two full retail spaces on the lower levels, both designed with large double height ceilings and 4-container-wide open spaces – as a counterpoint to the modular box-quality of the container inner space. The second level houses offices, press area and storage, while a bar, a lounge and event space with a large open terrace is placed at the top.
Maison Conteneur by Patrick Partouche—http://partouche-architecte.blogspot.tw/
French architect Patrick Partouche designed in 2010 a place that although is build from cargo containers tends to imitate a traditional house. This contemporary house (8 large shipping containers, located on the banks of river Lille in France) has approximately 2,240 square feet and cost around € 221,000 to complete.
BOXPARK Shoreditch by Roger Wade—http://www.boxpark.co.uk/
Commercial spaces come in different shapes and designs to attract as many clients as possible through an appealing look. BOXPARK Shoreditch is a retail revolution – the world’s first pop-up mall.
The ingenious idea comes straight out from a pure economical principle. The small brands find almost impossible renting a big space in a fancy shopping center and therefore reaching to the general public with their products. With this Box Park the situation is different and almost any entrepreneur can afford to rent one of the commercial spaces.
Del Popolo by Jon Darsky—http://www.delpopolosf.com/ Del Popolo is housed in a twenty-foot transatlantic shipping container that’s been re-purposed and modified into a kitchen.
Back in 1956, when entrepreneur Malcolm Mclean invented the Intermodal Shipping Container design, he wouldn’t have imagined that it would become a prominent form of architecture. “Necessity may have prompted the development of shipping container architecture, but innovation and creativity have taken up the baton. There is no limit, besides our imaginations, to what we can build." ~ David Campbell, CEO of Boxman Studios