Shipping Container Architecture vs.貨櫃屋 2014/03/10

前些時日在電視新聞裡討論起近年來因為房價過高,有愈來愈多的年輕人改住造價約20萬元的貨櫃屋。隨著鏡頭一帶,這些制式的貨櫃屋,果然是以經濟因素為考量,一切從簡,跟印象中的工寮鐵皮屋其實沒有多大差別;而這個景象,反倒比起討論貨櫃屋所帶來的空地法規及安全等問題,更令我驚訝:怎麼可能在國外已經發展到極致、各式各樣好玩點子層出不窮的Shipping Container Architecture,在台灣卻依然停留在臨時、急就章,毫無設計、美感可言的「違章建築」巢臼裡?

A Short History of Shipping Container Architecture:                                                   8 feet wide by 8.5 feet high, and either 20 or 40 feet long, the steel shipping container has been the globally standardized transportation module since 1956 by Malcolm Mclean.           In 1987, Philip C. Clark filed for a US patent for his “method for converting one or more steel shipping containers into a habitable building.” Clark, and others who saw the potential in these massive containers, were “green” ahead of their time!                                                    Shipping Container Architecture is a style of architecture that has been gaining popularity in recent years. Today, architects and designers repurpose the steel enclosures, utilizing their flexible and adaptable nature, which means that they can be constructed almost anywhere.

現在就一起來看看國外建築師是如何挖空心思,把貨櫃當積木一樣排列堆疊,再結合傳統建材,化腐朽為神奇,做出無窮的變化,讓廉價的鐵盒,搖身成為時尚的現代空間建築。

首先登場的當然是2011/12/13 Starbucks在Tukwila, Washington,以四個舊貨櫃打造的Drive-Thru Café。這是繼在全球推廣LEED綠色認證門市之後,Starbucks對環保所作的新嘗試,也是我開始關注Shipping Container Architecture的第一個例子。

p.s. 台灣第一家星巴克Drive Thru門市,即將在三月底於台南永康開幕。

Starbucks Made From Shipping Containershttp://www.starbucks.com/starbucks-recycled-shipping-containers1           This Starbucks drive-through/walk-up location in the Seattle suburb Tukwila is made of four recycled shipping containers. That crazy idea came from their extensive use of these containers to ship their coffee and tea from all over the world.

starbucks-recycled-shipping-containers2           The cafe measures just 448 square feet, about as much space as a typical Starbucks, with room for three baristas to serve up lattes behind the counter.

The coffee conglomerate hopes to use containers for short or long-term cafes on future properties and possibly use them as temporary solutions when stores close for remodeling.

Econtainer Bridge by Yoav Messer Architects Ltdhttp://www.messer-architects.co.il/bridge2The 160 meters long bridge will be the gateway to Ariel Sharon Park and will connect Lod road straight to the center of Hiriya Mountain Park. The bridge will be used by pedestrians, bicycle riders and special vehicles that will function as shuttles to transport the public from the parking areas into the park itself.

bridge1Three tree-columns support the bridge, using the container’s structure to span the lengths.

Coca-Cola EKOCENTER by Coca-Cola Company and DEKA R&Dhttp://www.coca-colacompany.comekocenter-coca-cola-db01-818x543

EKOCENTER is a modularly designed kiosk with ‘slingshot’ technology at its core, transformed from a 20-foot shipping container with solar panel awnings into a local community hub, offering clean, safe drinking water, alongside other services, such as access to wireless communication, electricity, vaccination storage, and more tailored to address community needs. The ‘slingshot’ water purification system—developed in partnership with DEKA R&D – uses vapor compression distillation technology to turn any source of dirty water – river water, ocean water and even raw sewage – into safe, clean drinking water. The system delivers approximately 800 liters of clean water daily at the hourly electricity cost of less than a standard handheld hair dryer (1kwh).

ekocenter-coca-cola-db04

ekocenter-coca-cola-db02                                                                                                               Clean filtered water from the ‘slingshot’ water purification system.

ekocenter-coca-cola-db03                                                                                      Solar panels fitted on top of the shipping container.

Bharati Antarctic Research Station by Bof Arkitektenhttp://bof-architekten.de/en/base1Situated on a pen­in­su­la in nort­heastern Antarctica, the ‘Bharati Antarctic Research Station’ by Hamburg-based Bof Arkitekten presents a self-sufficient energy facility comprising of 134 shipping containers wrapped with an insulating aerodynamic metal skin. The 2,500 sq m (27,000 sq ft) development, which was awarded by the na­tio­nal cen­ter for Antarctic and oce­an re­se­arch in 2006, is conceived as an architectural volume that can easily be completely dis-assembled due to the re­stric­ted ac­ces­si­bi­li­ty within the re­gi­on.

base3India’s national center for Antarctic and ocean research in nort­heastern Antarctica

base4                                                                                      The development is comprised of 134 shipping containers wrapped with an insulating aerodynamic metal skin.

12 Container House by Architecture and Hygienehttp://architectureandhygiene.com/12con01           12 Container House is a prefab home, it was created by stacking a dozen orange “reclaimed” shipping containers in a T-shape looking out over the rocky peninsula to Blue Hill Bay.

12con03           在空空蕩蕩巨大的倉庫裡,擺進12個貨櫃,藉此作為隔間,劃分成辦公室、臥室、書房…,而貨櫃外面剛好作為居家的公共空間,比如起居室或客廳。如果需要更多房間,只要再多加幾個貨櫃就行了。

Bunny Lane by Architecture and Hygienehttp://architectureandhygiene.com/bunnyLane01          bunnyLane04

A house within another, bigger house, this design is located on 3 acres of property in Kalkin’s home state of New Jersey. The outer shell is a modern, industrial shed with unusual shaped, custom roll-up doors and 3 stories of rooms on one end.

bunnyLane03

bunnyLane02                                    The inner home is a traditional two-story New Jersey home, white-washed and pristine, sitting on display almost as if it were being preserved in a museum.

Keetwonen (Amsterdam Student Housing) by Tempohousing—http://www.tempohousing.com/keetwonen1Keetwonen is the name of the biggest container city in the world (33000 sq. m) according to Tempohousing, a modular design firm based in the Netherlands. Built for temporary student housing, there are 1000 units arranged in blocks creating a new community, which include a cafe, supermarket, office space, and even a sports area.

keetwonen3          keetwonen4     Each unit comes with its own bathroom, kitchen, balcony, separate sleeping and study spaces, large windows that provide daylight and a view.

Although the project was initially meant to only stay on this site for 5 years (and to be relocated after that – container homes are ideal for that, you move and you take your house with you!), it is expected that the relocation will be postponed until 2016.                     p.s. The project started at the end of 2005 (first 60 homes commissioned) and was completed mid 2006.

The Nomadic Museums by Shigeru Ban(坂茂) Architects—Canadian artist Gregory Colbert’s Nomadic Museum is a purpose-built temporary structure used to house his traveling “Ashes and Snow” film and photography exhibition. The first Nomadic Museum, designed by Japanese architect Shigeru Ban and engineers Buro Happold, debuted with the opening of Ashes and Snow in New York City in March 2005. The museum then traveled to Santa Monica, California, in 2006, Tokyo in 2007. (http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com)

The Nomadic Museum is charted to travel the globe with no final destination.

Nomadic Museum, New York, 2005NMN04                                                Built at Pier 54 on the Hudson River, it is constructed with paper tubes and 148 shipping containers. 20m-wide by 205m-long and 4500㎡-surface, stacked 34 feet high.

NMN02          NMN03Constructed out of locally rented shipping containers and recyclable paper tubes, the building forms a central walkway for viewing the artwork, suspended on either side.

Nomadic Museum, Santa Monica, 2006                                                                        NMS01          NMS03The site in Santa Monica was unlike that of New York’s long pier structure but was shorter and much wider. The original 200m long gallery was divided into two 100m lengths and arranged parallel to each other with a spacing of the same width as the gallery.

NMS04                                    A membrane roof was put over the void and the requested museum shop and cinema was added. It was possible to avoid increasing the number of containers while adding further functionality.

Nomadic Museum, Tokyo, 2007                            NMT01          NMT03

In the Spring of 2007 the museum was transported to Tokyo where it took the same shape as in Santa Monica.

NMT05          NMT04

p.s. Pritzker Prize 2014 Goes to Shigeru Ban, the Architect of Relief
坂茂,第七位榮獲普利茲克建築獎的日本建築師(有「建築界諾貝爾獎」之稱的普利茲克建築獎,自1979年以來每年頒發一次,至今已頒給36位各國的建築師或團體):前六位分別是已故的丹下健三(1987年)、槙文彥(1993年)、安藤忠雄(1995年)、妹島和世與西澤立衛團隊(2010年)以及伊東豐雄(2013年)。坂茂的建築通常被譽為可持續和環保設計,他本人也表示:「我始終對低成本、本地出產和可重複使用的材料懷有興趣。」

FREITAG Flagship Store Zürich by Spillmann Echsle Architektenhttp://www.spillmannechsle.ch/wp/?cat=1zurich2                        19 re-used overseas containers were specially selected in Hamburg and transported to Zurich by rail, where they were stacked and mounted with the same elements that are also used in the shipping industry. Large window openings provide the showrooms with daylight, and allow views in both directions: from the inside out and vice versa.

zurich3                                                                                                         垂直堆疊的9個貨櫃,高達26公尺,是全世界最高的貨櫃屋。最右邊1~4層是展示間,其餘則是儲藏空間,另有樓梯讓參觀者上到九樓頂的觀景台。

PUMA City by LOT-EKhttp://www.lot-ek.com/PC3Twenty-four(40-foot long) shipping containers are retrofitted and transformed into PUMA City, a transportable retail and event building. The building was assembled and disassembled a number of times at several different international ports. At 11,000 square  feet of space, it is the first(2008) container building of its scale to be truly mobile.

PC1          PC2PUMA City is conceived as a three level stack of containers, shifted to create internal outdoor spaces, large overhangs and terraces.

PC5

The structure is comprised of two full retail spaces on the lower levels, both designed with large double height ceilings and 4-container-wide open spaces – as a counterpoint to the modular box-quality of the container inner space. The second level houses offices, press area and storage, while a bar, a lounge and event space with a large open terrace is placed at the top.

PC4

Maison Conteneur by Patrick Partouchehttp://partouche-architecte.blogspot.tw/two-storey-container-house1

French architect Patrick Partouche designed in 2010 a place that although is build from cargo containers tends to imitate a traditional house. This contemporary house (8 large shipping containers, located on the banks of river Lille in France) has approximately 2,240 square feet and cost around € 221,000 to complete.

two-storey-container-house3          two-storey-container-house4

two-storey-container-house5          two-storey-container-house6

BOXPARK Shoreditch by Roger Wadehttp://www.boxpark.co.uk/Boxpark1

Commercial spaces come in different shapes and designs to attract as many clients as possible through an appealing look. BOXPARK Shoreditch is a retail revolution – the world’s first pop-up mall.

Boxpark2

Boxpark4          Boxpark7Opened in 2011 by founder and CEO Roger Wade, BOXPARK Shoreditch is made completely from shipping containers.

Boxpark8          Boxpark5The ingenious idea comes straight out from a pure economical principle. The small brands find almost impossible renting a big space in a fancy shopping center and therefore reaching to the general public with their products. With this Box Park the situation is different and almost any entrepreneur can afford to rent one of the commercial spaces.

Del Popolo by Jon Darskyhttp://www.delpopolosf.com/del-popolo-mobile-pizzeria-truck-2           Del Popolo is housed in a twenty-foot transatlantic shipping container that’s been re-purposed and modified into a kitchen.

del-popolo-mobile-pizzeria-truck-1           A wall of glass doors exposes the interior, including the traditional Italian-made wood-fired oven.

Back in 1956, when entrepreneur Malcolm Mclean invented the Intermodal Shipping Container design, he wouldn’t have imagined that it would become a prominent form of architecture.                                                                                                                                                    “Necessity may have prompted the development of shipping container architecture, but innovation and creativity have taken up the baton. There is no limit, besides our imaginations, to what we can build." ~ David Campbell, CEO of Boxman Studios

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