Germany:Kölner Dom/Cologne Cathedral, Köln (UNESCO 1996 World Cultural Heritage Site)— City Landmark科隆大教堂(三) 建築風格 2013/06/04

科隆大教堂占地7914平方公尺,東西長144.58公尺,南北寬86.25公尺,面積相當於一個足球場(window surface: 10000 sq. m., interior space: 407000 cu. m.) 。它是由兩座高塔爲主門、内部以十字形平面爲主體的建築羣;主體部分有61.10公尺高 (turret: 109 m.) ,而大門兩旁的尖塔(北塔高157.38公尺,南塔高157.31公尺),就像兩把鋒利的寶劍,直入雲霄(大教堂的四周還有11000座小尖塔pinnacles)。

450px-Koeln_RdFlug_2                                                A bird’s eye view of the Cathedral (via Wikipedia).

Chevet from the East End—The east end is one of the oldest sections of the Gothic Cathedral. It was completed sometime around 1300.

Koln (2013) 013The flying buttresses and pinnacles of the Medieval East End.

Portals of the West Façade—The west façade of the Cathedral with almost 7000 sq. m. of surface is the largest church façade ever built.

Koln (2013) 024Despite their large size, the three portals are dwarfed by the incredible expanse of the West Façade.                                                                                                                                         p.s. As is the case with the other façades, the two outer portals have one door and the centre portal two. This means that the Cathedral has a total of 12 doors.

Koln (2013) 030                                                                                                        The bronze doors of all the three portals show Gothic tracery, angels, symbolic figures and script in delicate relief. They were designed by Prof. Hugo Schneider from Kassel between 1887 and 1890.

All three portals celebrate the lives of the cathedral’s most important saints:

Koln (2013) 029The centre Main Portal is 9.3 m. wide and, including its gable, more than 28 m. high. The theme of it is the age before redemption (sculpted by Erlefried Hoppe and Peter Fuchs). The trumeau figure in the Main Portal is Mary, the link between the Old and New Testaments. She is flanked by Peter, the saint to whom the Cathedral is dedicated, and the Magi, whose precious relics are venerated in the Cathedral.

Koln (2013) 028To the left is the Magi Portal, which illustrates the Appearance of the Son of God to the peoples of the world (sculpted by Peter Fuchs).

Koln (2013) 026To the right is the St Peter Portal (Petersportal, the Cathedral’s oldest doorway, built between 1365 and 1390), which highlights the spreading of Christ’s teachings by his chosen apostles (sculpted by Peter Fuchs).

Portals of the South Transept Façade—Although this façade was designed and the eastern part of its foundations laid in the Middle Ages, construction work only began several hundred years later.

Koln (2013) 138The South Transept Façade reveals the taller central space framed by lower aisles, spanned by flying buttresses.

Koln (2013) 136-1p.s. Flying buttresses are a defining feature of Gothic cathedrals. They are used to stabilize the cathedral structure. Flying buttresses bear the thrust of the vaults, which would otherwise press the walls of the clerestory outward, and deflect the force of the wind on the roof safely to the ground.

In the 19th century (with no architectural drawings have survived) , the cathedral’s head architect, Ernst Friedrich Zwirner, drew up a new plan for the South Transept Façade based on the architecture of the South Tower.

Koln (2013) 016Although the South Façade was completed by 1855, it took from 1851 to 1869 to decorate it with sculptures.

Portals of the North Transept Façade—Construction of the North Transept Façade began in the 14th century.

Koln (2013) 269 The neo-Gothic North Transept Façade (also by Ernst Friedrich Zwirner) is somewhat simpler in its design than the South Transept Façade.

Cafe Reichard—established in 1855 (http://www.cafe-reichard.de/)

Koln (2013) 267

Koln (2013) 266-1          Koln (2013) 266

Koln (2013) 256There is no better place to view the Cathedral than sitting at Cafe Reichard.

Koln (2013) 025This kreuzblume(9.50 m. high, 4.60 m. wide) on the Cathedral Square is a life-size replica of the decorative element that is placed on the spires of the Cathedral.

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本篇發表於 UNESCO, 咖啡館逗留, 旅途中, 步履間。將永久鏈結加入書籤。

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