Cologne is Germany’s fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), located on both sides of the Rhine River.
科隆歷史 Cologne was originally founded and established by the Romans in 50 AD, under the name “Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium". It was the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of the military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462 AD. During the Middle Ages, Cologne flourished as one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. 1164年大主教Rainald von Dassel將東方三博士(Magi)的遺骨從米蘭移到科隆，使得科隆成為一個重要得朝聖地，市民也因此決定建造一座絕無僅有的大教堂來存放聖跡。從12世紀開始科隆與耶路撒冷、君士坦丁堡和羅馬市一起被並稱為聖城，它當時的正式拉丁語名稱為"Sancta Colonia Dei Gratia Romanae Ecclesiae Fidelis Filia上帝授予的神聖的科隆，羅馬教廷忠實的女兒"。 Up until World War II the city had undergone several other occupations by the French and also the British. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II. The bombing reduced the population by 95% and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.
Kölner Dom: Cologne Cathedral is the city’s most famous monument and the Cologne residents’ most respected landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which contains the relics of the Three Magi.
Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
The exterior of the Groß St. Martin is dominated by its massive tower, with four turrets at each corner. The design is Romanesque, with narrow windows and heavy masonry. Its hulking mass is lessened somewhat thanks to arcades around the apses and architectural details, especially noticeable on the small turrets.
p.s. The twelve churches are—http://www.cologne-tourism.com/ St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974 St. Aposteln in Altstadt-Nord, est. 9th century St. Cecilia’s in Altstadt-Süd, est. 9th century St. Georg in Altstadt-Süd, est. 11th century St. Gereon in Altstadt-Nord, est. before 612 St. Kunibert in Altstadt-Nord, est. 1247 St. Maria im Kapitol in Altstadt-Süd, est. 690 St. Maria Lyskirchen in Altstadt-Süd, est. 948 Groß St. Martin in Altstadt-Nord, est. 10th century St. Pantaleon in Altstadt-Süd, est. controversial St. Severin in Altstadt-Süd, est. 4th century and St. Ursula in Altstadt-Nord, est. early 5th century
Shops around Altstadt
科隆香水—Fragrance Museum Farina-House(The birthplace of EAU de COLOGNE ) The original Eau de Cologne is a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in 1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina (German: Johann Maria Farina 1685–1766), an Italian perfume maker from Santa Maria Maggiore Valle Vigezzo, Italy. (http://www.farinahaus.de/)
In 1708, Farina wrote to his brother Jean Baptiste: “I have found a fragrance that reminds me of an Italian spring morning, of mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after the rain". He named his fragrance Eau de Cologne, in honour of his new hometown.
The Farina-House is situated across from the Kölner Rathaus on the Obenmarspforten Street in Cologne. Founded in 1709, Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz is the world’s oldest fragrance factory still standing and has house the registered office since 1723.