華格納兩百周年漢堡指環之旅延伸(二):科隆Köln /Cologne—City of Exuberance 2013/06/04

Cologne is Germany’s fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), located on both sides of the Rhine River.

Koln (2013) 049 科隆市總面積為405.12平方公里(其中萊茵河左岸230.25平方公里,右岸174.87平方公里),以面積來說,它是繼柏林和漢堡之後的德國第三大城市。

科隆歷史                                                                                                                                                Cologne was originally founded and established by the Romans in 50 AD, under the name “Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium". It was the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and the headquarters of the military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462 AD.                                                                                                                                 During the Middle Ages, Cologne flourished as one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe.                                                                                         1164年大主教Rainald von Dassel將東方三博士(Magi)的遺骨從米蘭移到科隆,使得科隆成為一個重要得朝聖地,市民也因此決定建造一座絕無僅有的大教堂來存放聖跡。從12世紀開始科隆與耶路撒冷、君士坦丁堡和羅馬市一起被並稱為聖城,它當時的正式拉丁語名稱為"Sancta Colonia Dei Gratia Romanae Ecclesiae Fidelis Filia上帝授予的神聖的科隆,羅馬教廷忠實的女兒"。                                                                                                                               Up until World War II the city had undergone several other occupations by the French and also the British. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II. The bombing reduced the population by 95% and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.

科隆市徽

Wappen_Koeln.svg                                                                                               科隆市徽的底色是紅色和白色,這是漢莎同盟的顏色。                                                                 市徽中上部的三個王冠,它們代表著東方三博士,從12世紀開始就是科隆的標誌。                市徽下方的十一點黑色淚滴是紀念科隆的守護神—聖烏蘇拉(St. Ursula)的。傳說聖烏蘇拉是布列塔尼的公主,她在赴羅馬市朝聖的歸途中與她的同伴在科隆,被圍攻的科隆異教徒殺害。從16世紀開始,科隆的市徽中就有這十一點淚滴,它們代表著與聖烏蘇拉一起殉難的一萬一千名少女。

科隆教堂                                                                                                                                               

Koln (2013) 179-1科隆是萊茵河畔一座歷史悠久的教堂城市,除了科隆大教堂外,另外還有12座羅馬教堂在科隆市中心組成了獨特的教堂建築羣。德國沒有一座城市像科隆這樣,在中世紀城牆封閉的狹小空間内,容納12座規模宏大的羅馬式修道院教堂,堪稱中世紀建築藝術的珍寶。

Koln 007-1                                                                                           Kölner Dom: Cologne Cathedral is the city’s most famous monument and the Cologne residents’ most respected landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which contains the relics of the Three Magi.

Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.

Koln (2013) 004          Koln (2013) 005The most significant feature of  the Groß St. Martin is its awe-inspiring tower. This imposing structure, with its grand presence, along with the Gothic cathedral is an important landmark in Cologne.

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The exterior of the Groß St. Martin is dominated by its massive tower, with four turrets at each corner. The design is Romanesque, with narrow windows and heavy masonry. Its hulking mass is lessened somewhat thanks to arcades around the apses and architectural details, especially noticeable on the small turrets.

Koln (2013) 142

p.s. The twelve churches are—http://www.cologne-tourism.com/                                            St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974                                                                                              St. Aposteln in Altstadt-Nord, est. 9th century                                                                               St. Cecilia’s in Altstadt-Süd, est. 9th century                                                                                  St. Georg in Altstadt-Süd, est. 11th century                                                                                    St. Gereon in Altstadt-Nord, est. before 612                                                                                   St. Kunibert in Altstadt-Nord, est. 1247                                                                                           St. Maria im Kapitol in Altstadt-Süd, est. 690                                                                                St. Maria Lyskirchen in Altstadt-Süd, est. 948                                                                               Groß St. Martin in Altstadt-Nord, est. 10th century                                                                     St. Pantaleon in Altstadt-Süd, est. controversial                                                                            St. Severin in Altstadt-Süd, est. 4th century and                                                                           St. Ursula in Altstadt-Nord, est. early 5th century

Koln (2013) 146-1          Koln (2013) 147-1Fischmarkt-mit-Brunnen                                        Town houses (14th – 17th centuries)

科隆啤酒Kölsch                                                                                                                                  Kölsch是科隆當地聞名的啤酒,而Kölsch也是科隆方言;因此有一句笑話是如此說的:Kölsch是世界上唯一能喝的語言。

mamaleone1          Koln (2013) 161Mama Leone,  Restaurant Pizzaria Terrasse – Buttermarkt 38

Koln (2013) 162          Koln (2013) 158                   Sunny afternoon with a glass of cold beer at bank of the Rhine River, what can you ask more?

Koln (2013) 157          Koln (2013) 160Am Leystapel

Koln (2013) 170          Koln (2013) 168Heumarkt, square in Altstadt-Nord and Altstadt-Süd

Shops around Altstadt

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科隆香水—Fragrance Museum Farina-House(The birthplace of EAU de COLOGNE )          The original Eau de Cologne is a spirit-citrus perfume launched in Cologne in 1709 by Giovanni Maria Farina (German: Johann Maria Farina 1685–1766), an Italian perfume maker from Santa Maria Maggiore Valle Vigezzo, Italy. (http://www.farinahaus.de/)

Koln (2013) 175The company’s logo is a red tulip and still run by the founder’s descendants.

In 1708, Farina wrote to his brother Jean Baptiste: “I have found a fragrance that reminds me of an Italian spring morning, of mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after the rain". He named his fragrance Eau de Cologne, in honour of his new hometown.

Koln (2013) 174-1          Koln (2013) 173-1

The Farina-House is situated across from the Kölner Rathaus on the Obenmarspforten Street in Cologne. Founded in 1709, Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz is the world’s oldest fragrance factory still standing and has house the registered office since 1723.

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