Unter den Linden developed from a bridle path laid out by Elector John George of Brandenburg in the 16th century to reach his hunting ground in the Tiergarten. It was replaced by a boulevard of 2000 nut and linden trees planted in 1647, extending from the city palace to the gates of the city, by order of the “Great Elector” Friedrich Wilhelm. The boulevard served to keep the route more shady and comfortable for his travels, that means his carriage ride would have him traveling “unter den linden"; literally, under the lindens. In 1673, the 60 meter wide, un-surfaced boulevard with six rows of trees had a central aisle, which was reserved for pedestrians, and it became Berlin’s first public promenade. In 1820, the six rows of trees were reduced to four.
Points of interest：
宫殿橋Schloßbrücke—eastern end of the Unter den Linden
The Bridge was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel between 1821 and 1824 in the neo-classical style. Constructed over a western branch of the Spree River, the Schloßbrücke replaced a wooden structure once known as “The Bridge of Dogs" because hunters gathered there with their animals before setting out on a hunt.
Atop the supporting pillars of the bridge are eight groups of warriors projected by Schinkel and executed in Carrara marble by sculptors of the Schadow and Rauch schools, were not completed until 1842-57. The figures depict young heroes whose struggles and deaths are attended by the victory goddesses Nike, Iris and Athena. During the Second World War, the sculptures were stored in safety and finally re-erected at their original location in 1983-84.
The statues include: On the right side as you travel towards Lustgarten—
On the opposite side, you’ll find—
Unter den Linden, a main east-west prestigious boulevard, has started the numbering from the Schloßbrücke at the Museumsinsel to the Brandenburger Tor at the Pariser Platz since 1937. (http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/index_en.shtml)
柏林軍械庫Zeughaus—now Deutsches Historisches Museum The Zeughaus is the oldest structure on the Unter den Linden. It was built by the Brandenburg Elector Friedrich III between 1695 and 1730 in the baroque style, to be used as an artillery arsenal for the display of cannons from Brandenburg and Prussia. The first building master was Johann Arnold Nering. After his death in 1695, he was followed by Martin Grünberg, then Andreas Schlüter and finally Jean de Bodt. Reconstruction from 1950 by Otto Haesler
Facade of the Zeughaus, the Museum’s main building— Andreas Schlüter designed the keystones above the round-arch windows in the form of heads of giants.
The extension of the Deutsches Historisches Museum (2003)—designed by貝聿銘(Ieoh Ming Pei , April 26, 1917~)
新崗哨Neue Wache, Unter den Linden 4
The Neue Wache is the first building Karl Friedrich Schinkel built in Berlin and is considered one of the main works of German Classicism. Friedrich Wilhelm III contracted its construction as a guard house for the Kronprinzenpalais in 1816-18 to replace the old Artillery Guard House in the small chestnut forest.
The building has a portico of Doric columns. Schinkel wrote of his design: “The plan of this completely exposed building, free on all sides, is approximately the shape of a Roman castrum, thus the four sturdier corner towers and the inner courtyard." The statuary in the pediment of the building is intended as a memorial to Prussia’s role in the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon in 1813-15. It shows Nike, the goddess of victory, deciding a battle. The building served as the main guard house and the royal guard house until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Heinrich Tessenow altered the building in 1930-31 to make it a “Memorial to Those Who Fell in the World War”. He converted the interior, originally a 1-1/2-story room with an interior courtyard, into a memorial hall with an oculus (circular skylight).
After German reunification the Neue Wache was inaugurated on the National Day of Mourning in 1993 as the “Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany to the victims of War and Tyranny" with the mourning pieta by Käthe Kollwitz in Tessenow’s reconstructed “monumentally void interior hall". This sculpture, Mother with her Dead Son, is directly under the oculus, and so is exposed to the rain, snow and cold of the Berlin climate, symbolizing the suffering of civilians during the Second World War.
倍倍爾廣場Bebelplatz Bebelplatz is located on the south side of the Unter den Linden. It is bounded to the east by the Staatsoper building, to the west by buildings of Humboldt University, and to the southeast by Sankt-Hedwigs-Kathedrale. The square dates from 1740, but was named after founder of the Social Democratic Party of Germany August Bebel in 1947.
Origins of the Bebelplatz The square was laid out between 1741 and 1743 under the rule of King Friedrich II of Prussia. Plans for this square included an opera house, an academy, and a royal palace. The area became known as Forum Fridercianum and later Opernplatz, as the opera house was the only part of the plan that was completed before the king passed away.
A Dark Day at the Bebelplatz Unfortunately, the Bebelplatz is sometimes best known for what happened there on May 10, 1933. On that date, the Nazi minister, Joseph Goebbels, organized a nationwide book burning, with more than 20,000 books by Jews, Communists, and Pacifists burned on a pyre in the middle of the Bebelplatz. Today a memorial by Israeli artist Micha Ullman consisting of a glass plate set into the cobbles, giving a view of empty bookcases, commemorates the book burning.
Furthermore, a line of Heinrich Heine is engraved on a plaque inset in the square (1820) “Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man am Ende auch Menschen." (Where they burn books, they will in the end also burn people.)
p.s. Students at Humboldt University continues its tradition of a book sale at the university gates facing Bebelplatz every year to mark the anniversary.
柏林國家歌劇院Staatsoper , Unter den Linden 7— colloquially called Lindenoper Construction work began in July 1741 with what was designed by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff to be the first part of a “Forum Fridercianum” on present-day Bebelplatz. For the exterior construction, the king and his architect Knobelsdorff decided on a sleek form with a monumental Classical portico based on the model of the English successors to Palladio. In the interior the building was decorated with elaborate, playful Rococo forms.
聖黑德維希主教座堂Sankt-Hedwigs-Kathedrale—neo-classical style In 1747 King Friedrich II ceded a free area behind the Opera to the Catholic congregation, which did not yet have its own place of worship in Berlin. In accordance with specifications from the king, Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff designed the central structure in imitation of the Pantheon in Rome. Johann Boumann the Elder took over the execution of these plans in 1747-73. It was the first Roman Catholic Church constructed in Germany after the Protestant Reformation.
Bombings in March 1943 gutted the cathedral down to the enclosing walls. Its restoration in 1952-63 was planned by the Düsseldorf architect Hans Schwippert. The external architecture was restored to resemble its historical appearance; except for the dome, whose new concrete shell construction gave it a new silhouette. The façade is characterized by a simple plaster ashlar, high, unadorned Romanesque windows and an entablature running around the entire structure. The portico is accentuated architecturally, with its triangular gable supported by six Ionic three-quarter columns. The intercolumniation alternates between Romanesque portals and statue niches with vertical rectangular supraportals decorated with reliefs of scenes from the New Testament.
老國家圖書館Alte Bibliothek—Kommode (Its curved façade is reminiscent of a piece of bedroom furniture.)
Completed in 1780, the neo-baroque style of the Alte Bibliothek is slightly at odds with the classical tone to the rest of the Forum Fridercianum; the reason for this is that King Friedrich II used plans drawn up by Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach in 1725 for the Michaelertrakt in the Hofburg in Vienna. Construction between 1775 and 1780 was directed by Georg Friedrich Boumann the Younger. The sweeping façade above the high pedestal is strikingly accentuated through the colossal Corinthian arrangement of the protruding center and corner structures.
柏林洪堡大學Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6— Palais Prinz Heinrich The open courtyard across from the Staatsoper is the honor court of the broad three-winged structure of the Humboldt-Universität.
The palace was built in 1748-53 as a city residence for the brother of Friedrich II, Prince Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig of Prussia. The architect was Johann Boumann the Elder; the first preliminary drafts were presumably produced by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff. In 1810 Friedrich Wilhelm III transferred ownership of the palace to the newly founded Universität zu Berlin by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, whose university model has strongly influenced other European and Western universities. From 1828 it was known as the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. In 1949, it changed its name to Humboldt-Universität in honour of both its founder Wilhelm and his brother, geographer Alexander von Humboldt. In 1913-20 city architectural commissioner Ludwig Hoffmann added on lateral and rear extensions to the university. In 1943-44 the central building was destroyed down to its external walls, the eastern wing was gutted all but completely, and the western wing suffered partial destruction. Reconstruction was undertaken in two phases in the years 1947-54 and 1958-62. The representative decor of the rooms in the central wing with neo-Classical wall and ceiling modeling is one of the highest quality examples of the architecture of the 1950s in the GDR.
腓特烈大帝騎馬像Denkmal König Friedrich II von Preußen Known by Berliners as “Alte Fritz”, the monumental equestrian statue of King Friedrich II of Prussia marks the end of the “Forum Fridericianum" and constitutes the start of the linden boulevard. p.s. Friedrich II (January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, reigning from 1740 to 1786.
Design: Historians say that it took nearly 70 years, 40 artists, and 100 designs to determine the plan for the equestrian statue of the much-revered Friedrich the Great. Finally, construction of the statue began in1839 under the watchful eye of its creator, Christian Daniel Rauch. Rauch had devised his design nearly 10 years before construction actually began, and by the time it was completed in 1851, the artist had spent nearly 20 years of his life working on this single project.
The Statue: The 13.5 meter high statue sits on the Unter den Linden between The State Library and Humboldt University. It spent several years in Potsdam at the Sanssouci Palace before being returned to Berlin in 1980. The statue on the multi-stage granite base and pedestal depicts Friedrich II sitting on his trotting horse (facing east) in his formal uniform – coronation robes, tri-cornered hat, and top boots. His left hand grips the reins; the right hand on his hip holds a crutch as a reference to the aging king.
The pedestal is three-tiered. The lower part includes 4 tablets emblazoned with the names of 60 men proclaimed to be leading figures in Germany at the time of construction. Just above the tablets are life-sized statues of 4 cavalry commanders, stationed at each corner. On the same level are 21 statues that depict the most outstanding generals of Friedrich’s army as well as additional statues of other leading figures in politics, art, and science. The uppermost section of the pedestal is reserved exclusively for the king: four seated figures at the corners allude to the cardinal virtues, while the reliefs portray scenes from Friedrich’s life — closely combing reality and myth.
Deutsche Bank, Unter den Linden 13/15
Café Einstein, Unter den Linden 42—meeting point for politicians and media
The café possesses the charm of a Viennese Coffee House, and photo exhibitions regularly take place in the back rooms.
巴黎廣場Pariser Platz—柏林的客廳 Pariser Platz is a square in the centre of Berlin, situated by the Brandenburger Tor at the end of the Unter den Linden.
Pariser Platz was originally laid out between 1732 and 1734 as part of Berlin’s second Baroque expansion outwards from the historical city center. Its original name was known simply as Quarré or Viereck (the Square) — it was one of three new ornamental plazas laid out during this period, the others being the “Octogon" (now Leipziger Platz) and “Rondell" (now Mehringplatz). In March 1814, when Prussian troops along with the other Allies captured Paris after the overthrow of Napoleon, it was renamed Pariser Platz to mark this triumph.By 1850 it was surrounded by buildings in largely classicist style, which remained largely unchanged until the Second World War.
布蘭登堡門Brandenburger Tor— western end of the Unter den Linden
The Brandenburger Tor was built between 1788 and 1791 by Carl Gotthard Langhans (commissioned by King Friedrich William II of Prussia ) as a replacement for a smaller gate erected here in 1734.
布蘭登堡門仿照希臘雅典衛城的柱廊建築風格，前後各有6根多立克式的立柱，支撑着11公尺深的5條通道。據史書記載，最寬的中間通道在1918年德皇退位 前，僅允許皇族成員行走。在各通道內側的石壁上鑲嵌著雕塑家Johann Gottfried Schadow創作的20幅描繪古希臘神話中大力神Heracles英雄事跡的大理石浮雕畫，而30幅反映古希臘和平神話「和平爭戰」的大理石浮雕裝飾在 城門正面的石門楣上。 p.s. Berlin had a long history of classicism: first classicist Baroque and then a neo-Palladian, but this was the first Greek revival neo-classical structure in Berlin.
The Brandenburg Gate is not only a symbol of division and reunification; it was also the site of many other events in German history, a history characterized by so many peaks and troughs. In 1806 Napoleon marched triumphantly into Berlin and carried the Quadriga away with him to Paris as a spoil of war. In 1814, after the victorious conclusion of the wars of liberation, Prussian Commander Marshal Blucher triumphantly brought the chariot back to Berlin; Schinkel replaced the oak wreath on the goddess’ scepter with an iron cross, changing the figure’s interpretation from a courier of peace into a goddess of victory. In 1933 the National Socialists marched through the gate in a martial torch parade, introducing the darkest chapter of German history, ultimately leaving the city destroyed and Germany divided. Finally, when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the gate symbolized freedom and the unity of the city. It re-opened on 22 December 1989 when the West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl walked through to be greeted by the East German Prime Minister, Hans Modrow.