The Hamburger Kunsthalle locates in the city center, near the Central Station and the Binnenalster. Its permanent collection takes visitors on a journey through seven centuries of art history, from the medieval altars of Master Bertram through to the stars of the contemporary art scene such as Gerhard Richter and Neo Rauch.
The Hamburger Kunsthalle consists of three striking connected buildings: the brick building from 1869 with its ornamental façade (by architects Georg Theodor Schirrmacher and Hermann von der Hude), the neoclassical extension building from 1919 made of light-colored shell limestone (by architect Fritz Schumacher), and the white cube of the Galerie der Gegenwart designed by architect Oswald Mathias Ungers and opened in 1997, the Hamburger Kunsthalle is therefore also one of the city’s architectural highlights.
The Café George Economou – established in September 2011 – is located in the Rotunda close to the main entrance of the old wing. Thanks to the benefits of the Greek ship owner and collector George Economou the furniture could be realized with chairs and tables designed by Philipp Starck for the legendary Café Costes in Paris.
今天因為時間有限，只能隨導覽員逛逛Gallery of the 19th Century，並看看藝術館中德國表現主義畫家的作品：
The Hamburger Kunsthalle holds one of the most important collections of 19th Century paintings. The Galleries of the 19th Century open with works by artists of Romanticism and close with German Impressionism. The years 1800 and 1914, thresholds of epochs, determine beginning and end of this department. The rooms in which the collection of 19th Century painting is displayed are arranged chronologically.
The display commences with room 118, dedicated to the work of Philipp Otto Runge (German Romantic Painter, 1777-1810). Apart from Caspar David Friedrich, Runge is the most important painter of early Romanticism. Both rejected the regulations of academic Classicism and instead invoked the “pure sentiment" of the artist. Runge did not confine his versatile ideas to painting alone; he ascribed a comprehensive meaning for life to art. Runge also published a theory of color as well as fairy tales.
The painting was done for the children’s father, the Hamburg merchant Friedrich August Hülsenbeck. Here Runge depicted children full of vibrancy, ready to discover the world with a faraway, mystical gaze. This painting is regarded as one of the finest works of the era.
The 14 works by Caspar David Friedrich (German Romantic Painter, 1774-1840) form the climax of Romantic landscape painting in room 120. Caspar David Friedrich was a landscape painter of the 19th Century German Romantic movement, of which he is now considered the most important painter. A painter and draughtsman, Friedrich is best known for his later allegorical landscapes, which feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees, and Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey the spiritual experiences of life. During the 1920s his work was appreciated by the Expressionists, and in the 1930s and 1940s, the Surrealists and Existentialists frequently drew on his work.
Paintings such as Wanderer Overlooking the Sea of Fog (1818) and The Arctic Sea (1823/24) represent the loneliness of the modern subject placed in a majestic landscape, as well as the failure of man in a hostile natural environment. In Friedrich’s oeuvre landscape is imbued with an existential meaning, it becomes a metaphor for human fate.
Friedrich’s greatest accomplishment was his ability to turn landscapes into a medium of physiological and spiritual biography. Here, he includes his own portrait within his landscape as a lay figure seen from behind—a device intended to invite the viewer to look at the world through the lens of the artist’s own personal perception.
French painting from the latter half of the 19th Century forms another emphasis in the galleries. In rooms 131- 134 masterpieces by nearly all the renowned painters of the period such as Gustave Courbet, Camille Corot, Honoré Daumier, Edgar Degas, Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Gauguin, Auguste Renoir, Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley and Paul Cézanne can be found.
Edouard Manet (French Realist/Impressionist Painter, 1832-1883) One of the first 19th Century artists to approach modern and postmodern-life subjects, he was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism.
The Makart-hall (room 135/136/136a) is dominated by Hans Makart’s (Austrian Academic Painter, 1840-1884) monumental piece The Entering of Emperor Karl V. in Antwerp (1878).
Max Liebermann (German Impressionist Painter, 1847-1935) was a German-Jewish painter and print-maker. He founded the German impressionist school and coordinated its development with the modern movement in Paris.
This is one of the few religious paintings by Liebermann, as well as one of his earliest. When the artist showed the painting for the first time in 1879 at the Munich International Art Exhibition provoked a controversy. The painting we now see is not as it was originally painted. Originally he painted the boy Jesus in a Realist style— as a barefoot Jewish urchin, dark and swarthy, conspicuously using his hands to argue doctrine with his elders. In a later canvas he toned down Jesus’ Semitic appearance, giving him blond hair, softer facial features and less emphatic gestures. This is the one we see now.
Edvard Munch (Norwegian Symbolist/Expressionist Painter, 1863-1944) was a Norwegian painter and print-maker whose intensely evocative treatment of psychological themes built upon some of the main tenets of late 19th Century Symbolism and greatly influenced German Expressionism in the early 20th Century.
Madonna is the usual title given to a composition by Edvard Munch. Munch painted several versions of the composition, showing a bare-breasted half-length female figure, between 1892 and 1895, using oils on canvas. He also produced versions in print form. This painting was also called “Loving Woman" by Munch. This indicates that the painting carries both, religious and erotic content. The red “halo" emphasizes the connection with the Madonna. But the figure is also characterized by her abandonment to the sublime moment of love.
p.s. The version owned by the Munch Museum of Oslo was stolen in 2004 but recovered two years later. Two other versions are owned by the National Gallery of Norway and the Kunsthalle Hamburg. Another one is owned by businessman Nelson Blitz, and one was bought in 1999 by Steven A. Cohen.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (German Expressionist Painter and Sculptor, 1880-1938) was one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke (The Bridge), a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th Century art. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as “degenerate" by the Nazis and in 1937 over 600 of his works were sold or destroyed. In 1938 he committed suicide by gunshot.
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner first depicts himself in the studio, with brush and model, a typical subject. He is depicting himself as a master of his craft, his authority over the viewer expressed through his wild, staring eyes, and his dominance over the picture space. But here he seems to use this traditional setting to emphasize the radical differences in his style. He uses this touch of the familiar to shock the viewer, it is a provocative piece.
Erich Heckel (German Expressionist Painter, 1883-1970) was also a founding member of the Die Brücke group which existed 1905-1913. The goal of this movement was to employ visual forms to express the innermost feelings of the artist and evoke an emotional response in the viewer through the use of vivid, exaggerated colors and loose, expressive brushwork. Nazis prohibited him from exhibiting and confiscated 729 works from public collections. Studio and its contents in Berlin also destroyed during World War II.
This work (an excellent example of German Expressionism) was painted in 1912 shortly after Heckel’s move to Berlin, and reflects his move to more muted colors and melancholic themes, which often included illness and introversion. Although the men sit together their unhappy expressions hint at doubt, distrust and alienation. The painting of a distorted, suffering crucified Christ on the back wall heightens the powerful emotions of anxiety and despair that permeate the scene.
Max Beckmann (German Expressionist Painter, 1884-1950) was a German painter, draftsman, print-maker, sculptor, and writer. Although he is classified as an Expressionist artist, he rejected both the term and the movement. In the 1920s, he was associated with the New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit), an outgrowth of Expressionism that opposed its introverted emotionalism. Max Beckmann was persecuted by the Nazis in the 1930s but continued to work, painting his celebrated secular triptychs in the late 1930s and the 1940s.
Otto Dix (German Expressionist Painter, 1891-1969) noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.
George Grosz (German Dadaist/Expressionist Painter, 1893-1959) was a German artist known especially for his savagely caricatural drawings of Berlin life in the 1920s. He was a prominent member of the Berlin Dada and New Objectivity group during the Weimar Republic before he immigrated to the United States in 1933.