The old town centre —At the beginning of the 9th century Charlemagne planned to build a ring embankment as a base in the fight against the heaths in the north. But he died before he could bring his plan about and so this job fell to his son Louis the Pious. He had a castle build which he called Hammaburg due to its nearness to the water (Hamm = riverside). The castle became well-known through bishop Ansgar, a missionary engaged by Louis the Pious, who used the Hammaburg as from 831 as a support of his newly-created archbishopric. Where you find St. Petri Kirche today, a cathedral was built at that time. It was Hamburg’s first Church, founded by Bishop Ansgar.
The churches are still an important component of the old town today, but apart from the four main churches (St. Petri, St. Katharinen, St. Jakobi and St. Nikolai) the image of the old town is marked by the storehouse quarter, the city hall, the exchange building and big shopping streets.
市政廳Rathaus/City Hall： 漢堡市政廳位於市中心的舊城區，前面是市政廳廣場(Rathausmarkt)，用於慶典活動，後方則是漢堡交易所(Börse)；主要購物街 Mönckebergstraße連接着市政廳和漢堡中央車站(Hauptbahnhof)。Jungfernstieg、內阿爾斯特湖和阿爾斯特湖碼頭 則緊臨市政廳的北側。聖佩特利教堂是附近的一個標誌性建築。
History After the old city hall was destroyed in the great fire of 1842, it took almost 44 years to build a new one. The present building was designed by a group of seven architects, led by Martin Haller. Construction started in 1886 and the new city hall was inaugurated in 1897. Its cost was 11 million German gold marks. On October 26, 1897 at the official opening ceremony the First Mayor Dr. Johannes Versmann received the key of the city hall.
During World War II, the City Hall was heavily damaged by the firestorm that swept the city as a result of massive bombing by the British Royal Air Force on July 23, 1943 — an attack codenamed Operation Gomorrah. On May 3, 1945 the German commander surrendered Hamburg to the British Army. Reconstruction of the City Hall was completed 12 years later, in 1957.
Architecture On the outside the architectural style is neo-renaissance, which is abandoned inside for several historical elements. It is one of the few completely preserved buildings of historicism in Hamburg. The city hall has a total area of 17,000 m2 (182,986 sq ft), not including the restaurant Ratsweinkeller of 2,900 m2 (31,215 sq ft). The tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high with 436 steps. The city hall of Hamburg has 647 rooms, six rooms more than Buckingham Palace, on a building area of 5,400 m2 (58,125 sq ft). p.s. In 1971 a room in the tower was only discovered accidentally during a search for a document fallen behind a filing cabinet. So, there is a probability that there are even more rooms than the currently counted 647 rooms.
The balcony is surmounted by a mosaic of Hamburg’s patron goddess Hammonia, an inscription of the city’s Latin motto “Libertatem quam peperere maiores digne studeat servare posteritas" and the city’s coat of arms.
Hygieia-Brunnen/Hygieia Fountain A three bowl Hygieia fountain with bronze figures and a statue, which represents the health goddess Hygieia, form the center of the courtyard. Hygieia as the goddess of health in Greek mythology and its surrounding figures represents the power and pureness of the water. It was built by architect Martin Haller and sculptor Joseph von Cramer in remembrance of the cholera epidemic in 1892; the former technical purpose was air cooling in the city hall.
Hamburger Börse /Hamburg Exchange and Handelskammer Hamburg/Hamburg Chamber of Commerce In 1558, Hamburg businesspeople obtained the right from the “respectable Council of this good City of Hamburg” to prepare a site at Trostbrücke for their daily meetings. Thereby the history of the oldest and most versatile German exchange began in what was then the harbour area of Hamburg. It is closely connected to the history of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, which has its seat in the classicist Exchange building. After the great increase in colonial goods trading during the 19th century, in 1841 the Hamburg Exchange relocated from its original site at Trostbrücke to the new building at 1 Adolphsplatz (by architects Carl Ludwig Wimmel and Franz Gustav Forsmann).
25 years later, the foundation stone of the Rathaus (Town Hall) was laid at the back of the building, in which immediate neighborhood the Exchange has now had its seat for about 170 years. The post-Classicist building is among not only the most traditional but also the most beautiful in Hamburg. Now, with the General Exchange, the Grain Exchange, the Insurance Exchange, as well as the Stock Exchange, the Hamburg Exchange unites four individual institutions under its roof.
The East Exchange Hall of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce is a meeting place for businessmen and business associates both from the insurance industry as well as from the grain trade.
The Arcades—Both the Allgemeine Börse (General Exchange) and the Insurance Exchange use the space in the arcades between the central and east Exchange halls.
The Insurance Exchange /Hamburger Versicherungsbörse— The history of the Insurance Exchange goes back to the founding of the Hamburg Exchange in 1558. From the very beginning, besides merchandise trade, the insurance of goods transport was also a fixed component of the transactions.
Hamburger Versicherungsbörse is the only existing physical Exchange having a exchange meeting in Hamburg. It takes place on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 1:30 to 2:00 p.m. in the exchange rooms of the Chamber of Commerce in Hamburg.
p.s. Although, in the first period after the foundation of the Hamburg Exchange in 1558, merchandise trade was in the foreground, financial and exchange transactions were always carried out in parallel. The history of the Hanseatic Stock Exchange in Hamburg – in short: Börse Hamburg – can thus be traced back over 450 years. Regular trading in securities began in 1815; therefore the Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of the eight German Stock Exchanges. At the same time, it is one of the most innovative regional exchanges.
The Library of Commerce/ The Information Exchange: The Library of Commerce in the building shared by the Hamburg Exchanges and the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce is the oldest commercial library in Europe.
p.s. Germany’s oldest exchange was found in the middle of the 16th century and resides since 1841 in a classicist building complex on the Adolphsplatz, which is separated from the Town Hall solely by a lavish inner courtyard. This is not an example of random symbolism. For hundreds of years the council comprised of merchants and ship owners and politics and economics are traditionally two sides of the same coin.
Trostbrücke/Consolation Bridge The Trostbrücke is a small, historic bridge which crosses the Nikolaifleet, one of many narrow inlets connecting the city’s docklands to the River Elbe. Since the middle of the 13th century (got documentary mention in 1266) until the great fire of 1842 the bridge was the centre of the Altstadt.
Today’s arch bridge of 1881 is framed by the sculptures of bishop Ansgar, who founded the city’s original cathedral and Count Adolf III., who had founded the Neustadt (new town) in 1188. The bridge has also connected the old and new towns since 1881.
Mönckebergstraße— The Hamburger “Mö” The Mönkebergstraße is the oldest traditional shopping district in Hamburg. Here-in the heart of the city, between Hauptbahnhof and the Rathausmarkt-is the home of large department stores, many fashion boutiques, but also small retail businesses. p.s. Mönckebergstraße得名於漢堡市長Johann Georg Mönckeberg，他自1897年起即擔任重建委員會主席。
Elbphilharmonie Kulturcafé—Popular for a quick rest is the Mönckebrunnen, which is found half way between central station and the town hall.
In summer 2009 the Elbphilharmonie Kulturcafé at the Mönckebrunnen (Mönckeberg Fountain) opened. Centrally located, residents of Hamburg and tourists can find info regarding concerts and other cultural offerings in the Hanseatic city there, and enjoy a latte macchiato by Starbucks at the same time.
p.s. The history of the pavilion: (http://www.elbphilharmonie.de/kulturcafe.de) As a consequence of the construction of Mönckebergstraße in the years 1904 to 1912 through the so called “Gänge” quarter in the historical heart of Hamburg, a little triangular plaza emerged at the beginning of Spitalerstraße and Lilienstraße. Originally, a 30 meter high edifice was supposed to have been built on that plaza, in the style of the surrounding buildings. However, the city’s building director Fritz Schumacher (1869–1947) managed to convince his critics that the plaza should be occupied by a building“of completely different dimensions and a different type than the surrounding office blocks,” because he considered this new, proposed building too important for such a pivotal point in the inner city to look like the rest. Based on his suggestions, the ensemble of the Mönckeberg Fountain arose as a monument to Mayor Johann Georg Mönckeberg, together with a small sandstone building used as a public “Reading Hall.” The fountain is ornamented with two human bronze figures and two sea lions, as well as a column crowned by a lion, as a reference to the mayor’s nickname (“the lion”) during whose term of office the Hamburg population doubled.
Mö Grill—a good bratwurst can be bought
漢堡中央火車站Hamburg Hauptbahnhof 漢堡中央車站每日服務450,000人次，是德國最繁忙的火車站，也是僅次於巴黎北站(Gare du Nord)的歐洲第二繁忙車站。