杜布洛夫尼克(Dubrovnik)的發展，起源於西元7世紀中葉，羅馬人與鄰近的達爾馬齊亞難民，首先進入此區發展，也因此早期受「拜占庭帝國」管轄。當時城市以古名「拉古沙Ragusa/義大利語」稱之，現今沿用的克羅埃西亞語名稱「杜布洛夫尼克」，則源自斯拉夫語「Dubrava/橡樹林之意」。這是因為當年有一支居住於附近橡樹林中的的斯拉夫民族Dubrons 因受到鄰族攻擊，而尋求「拉古沙」庇護，而獲安置於城境的邊緣地帶，之後便以族名的變化型態「Dubrava」稱呼此城。直至西元1918年奧匈帝國瓦解，「杜布洛夫尼克」名號才經南斯拉夫王國承認，正式浮上檯面。 這座面積797平方公里的老城就坐落在亞得里亞海濱、達爾馬齊亞海岸南端的一塊石灰岩脊上，與義大利東岸遙遙相望，為克羅埃西亞最南方領土。城牆以花崗岩砌成，牆外有護城河環繞，東面是陸地，其餘三面臨海。正是其特殊的地理位置，讓杜布洛夫尼克在海運盛行的中世紀時代，茁壯為能與威尼斯分庭抗禮的地中海貿易強權，更因此留下了許多昔日繁華的建設，從而成為如今這座老城引人入勝的觀光基礎。西元1979年UNESCO將杜布洛夫尼克定為世界文化遺產，號稱是擁有世上最美麗城牆的城市。有著「斯拉夫的雅典」、「亞得里亞海珍珠」、「城市博物館」美稱的杜布洛尼克，自然景象巧妙的結合人文建築，從哥德式、巴洛克至文藝復興時代，所有時期的建築特色相互融合，使得該城鎮成為克羅埃西亞最著名的世界遺產城市。愛爾蘭作家喬治‧蕭伯納曾說：「想目睹天堂美景的人，就到克羅埃西亞的杜布夫洛尼克」。
Walking Tour of Dubrovnik’s Old Town — http://www.tzdubrovnik.hr/eng/
The historic walled Old Town of Dubrovnik (Grad) is entirely pedestrian; no motors disturb the tranquility of its marbled streets. Most Dubrovnik sights are clustered in and around Stradun, the wide street that bisects the town.
【Dubrovnik City Gates】 The residents of old Dubrovnik entered the city through two main gates, the eastern gate at Ploče and the western one at Pile.
皮勒城門 (Pile Gate) — 分為內外兩層。
p.s. Before entering the City, stroll through Pile, and the 19th century seaward promenade Brsalje, the first one constructed outside the city walls, with a café and a fountain by sculptor Ivan Rendić. The Brsalje terrace offers a magnificent view over a portion of the city walls and Lovrjenac Fort, at the foot of which lies a picturesque suburb with a little harbor.
普洛查城門 (Ploče Gate) — 位於勒維林堡壘(Revelin Fort)下方，面對一座小碼頭，外觀與皮勒城門相似，城門與堡壘之間有一條護城河隔開。
This thoroughly fortified entrance complex consists of the 15th century inner and outer gates with stone bridges. Above the inner gate (Romanesque style) stands Asimon Tower, a part of the city walls complex. The outside gate was build by Simeon della Cava in 1450. The outer bridge includes a wooden section that used to be pulled up in the evening.
【Onofrio’s Fountains】 Onofrio della Cava built two fountains, now known as the Big Onofrio’s Fountain in front of the St Savior Church, and the Small Onofrio’s Fountain under the Bell Tower next to the building of the City Guard. The fountains were built for public use on the occasion of the completion of the City water supply in 1438, when the spring water was brought from Rijeka Dubrovačka, situated 12 kilometers away.
Big Onofrio’s Fountain is a sixteen-sided container with a cupola, and was one of the ending points of the aqueduct system. The fountain’s cupola was made by Petar Martinov from Milan. However, the fountain was partly damaged by the earthquake in 1667 hence the current look is missing a dragon statue that had once been on top of the cupola.
Small Onofrio’s Fountain stands in a niche on the City Guard façade. The stone-mason works on this small masterpiece were completed by Petar Martinov of Milan too. The relieves of nude baby-boys on the octagonal sides of the Fountain pool, the dolphins with shells, the maskerons and the kneeling boys on the water pole reveal the influence of Renaissance, although with reminiscences of Gothic style. The purpose of the Small Onofrio’s Fountain was to supply the market on the Luža Square with water.
【Church of Holy Savior】 Between the Pile Gate and the Franciscan Monastery, right next to the entrance to the City walls, lays the small votive Church of Holy Savior. The construction of the Church of the Holy Savior started in 1520 and was completed in 1528 according to the design of Petar Andrijić, a master architect from Korčula. The church was not damaged in the Great Earthquake of 1667 hence it remains in its original form.
Although the church has some Gothic elements (cross-ribbed ceiling and the side windows with pointy arches), it is a good example of a Dubrovnik Renaissance building. The frontispiece contains prominent Renaissance elements both on the portal and the three-leaved semi-circular ending; in addition, the proportions of the church, semi-circular apse, the complete picture reveals a clear and recognizable Renaissance building model.
p.s. In the time when Dubrovnik was built there was no cement. Therefore for building of this church the mortar was strengthened with milk and egg whites.
【方濟會修道院 Franciscan Monastery】
The large complex of the Franciscan Monastery is situated at the very beginning of Placa, to the left of the inner Pile Gate, next to the Church of Holy Savior. The lateral facade of the monastery church runs along the principal street of Dubrovnik, and the monastery spreads north along the walls as far as the Tower Minčeta.
p.s. Left of the entrance to the Franciscan church there is an ancient stone protruding from the wall with a face carved onto its surface. It is the end of the rainfall drainage system of the monastery. However the story about this face-carved stone in Dubrovnik is that it grants wishes! The face waits and listens: Whoever can climb this stone, take off and put back ones shirt while balancing on the stone, will have his wish granted!
The portal has all the marks of the Gothic style, but the solid volumes of the figures show the Renaissance spirit. The figures of St Jerome and St John the Baptist are set above the door-posts, while the Pieta in relief ( sculpted by the local brothers Petar and Leonard Petrović) is represented in the central Gothic lunette.
p.s. The local sculptor Mihoje Brajkov executed this masterpiece and his tombstone is in the south part of the cloister. Supposedly, the second capital straight ahead of you as you enter shows Brajkov himself. Notice the swollen cheek. He was suffering from a toothache at the time!
再往裡面走，有一座開業於西元1317年的藥房(Friars Minor Pharmacy)，是歐洲第三古老的藥店。目前藥房裡一邊是顧客盈門的藥房，另一邊則是藥學博物館，裏面保存有2萬多個藥壺以及手書的藥方等。
【Placa (pronounced “platsa") Street – Stradun】
The length of Placa Street is about 300 meters. It is the shortest communication between the western and the eastern City gates which divides the Old City into its northern and southern part. The name Placa is derived from the Greek and Latin “Platea” which translates as “street”. The other name, Stradun, is a Venetian sobriquet used ironically in the sense of “Big Street”.
p.s. It’s curious to note that Stradun was actually a part of the sea until the 11th century when it was finally paved over.
The Placa Street was paved in 1468 with red-brick. Today’s limestone pavement (1901) is polished by use, smooth as ice, and it shines bright, mirroring light, as if the surface was not stone, but glass.
p.s. It is interesting to notice that one half of Placa Street is paved in fish rib pattern facing one direction while the other half of the street is paved using the same pattern only facing the other direction. At the interchange of two patterns there is a single, small, rectangular limestone embedded in the pavement, the only different piece in the whole “puzzle".
The uniform Baroque architecture of two rows of stone houses in Placa, with shops on the street level equal height with their knee-like entrances and similar internal arrangement, got its present-day form in the restoration of the City taking place after the disastrous earthquake in 1667, when a large number of luxurious Gothic and Renaissance palaces had been destroyed.
【羅日廣場 Luža Square】 由史邦札宅邸(Sponza Palace)、鐘樓(City Bell Tower)與聖布萊斯教堂(St Blaise Church)所圍繞而成的羅日廣場(It was built in 1463, and thoroughly reconstructed in 1952.)，是史特拉敦大道(Stradun)的起點，也是杜布洛夫尼克最大的集會廣場。過去官方都選擇在此公告命令、裁決宣判，今天許多節慶活動也都在此舉行。
【Orlando Column】 At the eastern end of Placa Street, under the City Bell Tower, on Luža Square, stands a stone column, deep carved in the form of an ancient knight. The knight carved in the column is Orlando. According legend in the 9th century Orlando and his fleet saved Dubrovnik from a 15 month long Saracen siege. To express their gratitude the grateful citizens erected this beautiful column in Orlando’s honor. However we know that this legend is not true but the story for the masses to explain the erection of the knight-column. The truth is that the Orlando Column is the symbol of statehood. On its pole, where the flag of the Dubrovnik Republic once flew, the Croatian national flag now stands. During the Festival of St Blaise, the Dubrovnik patron saint, the column is bedecked with a flag with his image, and during the Dubrovnik Summer Festival with the Libertas flag. The column pragmatically served different purposes as the right-forearm of Orlando was the standard measure of the Ragusan cubit(lakat, 51.2 cm), shown more accurately by a line in the base of the column. Atop of the column is a small platform suited for public proclamations while the column supports a flag-pole that hoists the flag.
Orlando’s Pillar is the work of the local sculptor Antun Dubrovčanin and master sculptor Bonino di Milano from 1418. With a characteristic Gothic smile on his face encircled with long curls, he is considered one of Europe’s handsomest Orlando.
【Sponza Palace】— 文藝復興式 (十五~十七世紀) So much was destroyed in Dubrovnik’s 1667 earthquake but at least the Sponza Palace is there to remind us of what might have been. This exquisite mixture of Gothic and Renaissance styles displays a Renaissance portico, late-Gothic windows on the first floor and Renaissance-style windows on the second floor. And, like so many Dubrovnik sights, there’s a statue of St Blaise nestled in an alcove.
Sponza palace derived its name from the word for the spot where rainwater was collected (Spongia-”alluvium”) according to the former use of the spot it was built on. In the time of the Republic this palace housed the custom office and bonded warehouse, hence it was often referred to as Divona (from dogana -”customs”). Apart from the customs office, the state mint, the exchequer and treasury were also situated at the palace, designed by the Dubrovnik master Paskoje Miličević(1516-1522). Built in a rectangular shape, it has a shady portico and atrium. The stone-mason’s works were mainly performed by the Andrijić Brothers. An open porch communicates with the square in front; another porch opens on the first floor in front. Today the palace is the home of the major cultural institution of the Dubrovnik Archives. The documents which span the period from the 12th century to the fall of the Dubrovnik Republic which are kept there make this institution one of the most significant archives in the world. Particularly valuable is the collection of statutory and law books, including the Dubrovnik Statute from 1272.
【鐘樓 City Bell Tower】
The original City Bell Tower was built in 1444, aligned to the center of the Placa Street. It was a work of local masters Grubačević, Utišenović and Radončić. At first the two figures hitting the bell were wooden. Later the wooden figures were replaced by bronze statues, the famous “Zelenci" – Croatian (“the Green Ones"-Maro & Baro)). In 1509 renowned founder Ivan Rabljanin made a new bell that is in use even today as Dubrovnik community did not like the sound of the previous bell. After the earthquake in 1667, the Bell tower started leaning in the manner of the leaning tower of Pisa and in 1929 it was deemed to be unsafe and was demolished only to be replaced by a new Bell Tower built according to the same design.
【St Blaise Church】
The Church of St Blaise is Dubrovnik’s most beloved church, partly because St Blaise is the patron saint of Dubrovnik. Most festivals in Dubrovnik begin or end or have something to do with this church, conveniently located at the eastern end of Stradun. St Blaise could be singled out as the most used motif in arts in Dubrovnik. Since the year 972 celebrations in the honor of St Blaise is held in the City. This tradition is still alive today as every February the 3rd Dubrovnik welcomes thousands of visitors to participate in the celebration of the patron day in the Festival of St Blaise. (St Blaise Day is also the City of Dubrovnik Day.) According to the chroniclers of Dubrovnik, St Blaise saved the people of Dubrovnik in the 10th century when the Venetians anchored their ships in Gruž and in front of the Island of Lokrum. The present day church of St Blaise was constructed by Venetian architect Marino Gropelli in 1715. The church was built on the place of an old Romanesque church from 1368 that was significantly damaged in the Great earthquake of 1667 and finally destroyed in the fire that struck it in 1706. The only surviving remnant of that church was a 15th-century Gothic statue of St Blaise who holds a model of medieval Dubrovnik in his left hand. The statue is now incorporated into the main altar.
The new Church of St Blaise was built in Baroque style according to the prototype of St Mauritius church in Venice. A large staircase leads to the ornamented main portal and a large dome decorates the roof of the church.
【The Rector’s Palace】 One of the most significant monuments of profane architecture on the Croatian coast, the Rector’s Palace, was the administrative center of the Dubrovnik Republic. Its style is basically Gothic, with the Renaissance and Baroque reconstructions.
In the 15th century the Palace was destroyed twice in gunpowder explosions. Restored by Onofrio della Cava in the late Gothic style after the first explosion in 1435, the Palace got its present-day size with the central atrium and front portico. The capitals were carved in Renaissance style by Pietro di Martino of Milan, whose capital with Aesculapius has been preserved on the right half-column of the portico. The second gunpowder explosion in 1463 destroyed the western facade of the Palace, and the two famous architects Juraj Dalmatinac and Michelozzo of Florence were engaged in the reconstruction for a short period. Although the design of Michelozzo was unfortunately rejected, his influence in the restoration of the facade and portico, mainly in Renaissance style, can not be denied. After the earthquake of 1667 the atrium was partially reconstructed with an impressive Baroque staircase.
A row of stone benches are arranged along the western front wall under the porch. The Rector and the members of the minor council sat their on cushions, either to receive flag salute of St Blaise day, or to bid far well to the ambassador on their departure to distance countries. The Rector and his company used to watch carnival festivities from the same place too.
Today the Rector’s Palace houses the Cultural-historic Department of the Dubrovnik Museum with exhibition halls arranged to display the original setting with antique furniture and objects for daily use, as well as paintings by local and Italian masters.
p.s. The Rector’s Palace was built for Dubrovnik’s ruler, the elected Rector, who held office for one month on a revolving basis and was not allowed to leave during his term.
Dubrovnik Cathedral (full name Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin) is a venerable structure whose roots stretch back to the 7th century. Beneath the Cathedral, archaeological excavations have revealed the foundations and walls of two older churches. The first was an early Christian basilica built sometime in the 7th century. Around the mid 10th century it was probably rebuilt and vaulted by a cupola and its walls were decorated with frescoes. Around the mid-12th century another magnificent church was constructed around the walls of the original church. Some say that this new church was financed by Richard the Lion-Heart who, on his return from the Third Crusade (1192), was shipwrecked off the island of Lokrum. Saved by the citizens of Dubrovnik, he was so grateful he gave a substantial gift to finance the new church. This Romanesque Cathedral (a luxurious domed basilica ornamented with many statues) crumbled to dust in the Great Earthquake of 1667. Rebuilding started quickly and this Cathedral was completed in 1713. The Cathedral now houses a rich treasury including paintings and relics, and in its apse stands Titians poliptych the Assumption of the Virgin Mary from 1552.
【Dominican Monastery】 St Dominic Church is one of the largest and the most representative Gothic buildings on the East Adriatic. It is located at the eastern part of The City, close to the inner Ploče Gate.
The Dominican Monastery acquired its present day form in the 14th century perfectly fitting into the city walls as a part of the defense complex. Various elements of the Romanesque, Baroque, Gothic and Renaissance styles combine here in perfect harmony.
The monastery complex received its final form in the 15th century, when it was completed with a sacristy, capitulary hall and cloister. The outstandingly beautiful cloister was dedicated to St Sebastian, constructed by local builders.