Croatia: Historic City of Trogir (UNESCO 1997 World Cultural Heritage Site) 2012/06/04

http://tztrogir.hr/#52496

特羅吉爾(Trogir)位於達爾馬齊亞中央、亞得里亞海的東岸,是一座狹窄的島嶼城市。城牆環島而建,北邊以不到20公尺的石橋連接克羅埃西亞本土,南邊則是一座雙線通行的開合橋(Ciovski)跨越特羅吉爾水道(Trogirski Channel),通往奇歐佛島(Ciovo)。

從卡梅爾倫哥堡壘( Kamerlengo Fortress)眺望通往奇歐佛島的開合橋

歷史的鑿痕使得整座「島城」彷彿露天的城市博物館,從城市外觀可以清楚看到社會、文化發展的脈絡—希臘羅馬的城市佈局、中世紀的防禦城堡、仿羅馬式的教堂、威尼斯哥德式、文藝復興與巴洛克風格的宅邸在狹窄的中世紀街道交錯,外圍環繞寬闊的濱海大道。此種特別的複合風格城市,不僅在亞得里亞海,甚至整個中歐,都是保存最完整的一座。

特羅吉爾的歷史可追溯至西元前三世紀,希臘人開始在島上開拓殖民(Trogir的希臘文意思是:山羊的皮毛)。隨後的羅馬時代,特羅吉爾發展成一座主要港口,而這古老的城市基礎,便成為日後特羅吉爾城市的發展核心。接下來十多個世紀,特羅吉爾起起落落,有時享有獨立的自治權,強大經濟實力展現在精緻完美的建築與雕刻;有時又與達爾馬齊亞海岸其他城市的命運一樣,落在不同統治者的手中:克羅埃西亞國王、阿拉伯人、威尼斯、奧匈帝國、法國拿破崙輪番上陣,其中對城市風格影響最深遠的,無疑是十五~十八世紀威尼斯長期的統治。

【City Gates】                                                                                                                            The port of the city was strategically very secure. The western entrance was closed with chains, and the eastern one with a bascule bridge and defense towers built in the 14th century. The city was entered through the south and north city gate.

Start the walking tour from the north town Gates, “Porta Terrae Fermae", late-renaissance main town entrance connected to the land with small stone bridge. These gates are the main entry since Venetian control in the 15th century.

On the top of the gate is a statue of the town’s protector, the Blessed Ivan Orsini as well as a stone carving of the Venetian lion symbol underneath it.

South town Gates, “Porta Civitatis", are southern entrance in the town decorated with renaissance ornaments, still with well preserved wooden doors in its original look. Gates are built at the end of the 16th century and it was part of the walls of the city. It faces the waterfront of Trogir and the nearby island of Čiovo.                                                               The Loggia-doorway, situated next to the south gates, was originally designed as a night shelter for travelers arriving in Trogir after the city gates were closed. Later on it was the fish market and nowadays it is souvenir shop.

John Paul II Square】                                                                                                         The main town square, which has had that same role ever since the Greek period (Greek agora, Roman forum) until today, features the most monumental buildings: St. Lawrence Cathedral, City Hall, the Town Clock, Loggia, and Cipiko Palace standing over it.

  

*City Hall/Duke’s Palace                                                                                                      The City Hall, or the Duke’s Palace (Croatian: Općinska Palača) is situated on the spot where the church of St. Stjepan was. The Duke’s palace was the expression of the political and economic strength of the city in the first half of the 15th century. The Rector lived in the Palace, and the Small and Great Councils were convened there. In the 17th century it was transformed into a theater with stalls. The theater was destroyed in the fire in 1890 when it was rebuilt into the front having a Renaissance style.

The building is now used for administrative purposes.

The City Hall is known for the Gothic staircase in the courtyard, and well preserved winged lion of St. Mark on the wall of the building. Various fragments and coats of arms of families from Trogir and other cities are built into the walls.

*Clock Tower and the Town Loggia                                                                                 The City Clock Tower is all what remains of the small church of Saint Sebastian (Croatian: Crvca Sveti Sebastijan), built in 1422 to thank Saint Sebastian for allegedly protecting the city from the plague. Over the entrance into the tower, the statues of the Christ (on top) and of Saint Sebastian (underneath) are from Nikola Firentinac.

To the right of the church’s door is the pillory with remains of the original chains.

Next to the clock tower is the Town Loggia (Croatian: Gradska Loža). The Loggia was built in 1311, but the current one is from the 15th century. It was the half-function public object, the protection and stamping-ground and at the same times the courtrooms. This open courtroom served as a tribunal where all those who have violated the law were condemned, punished and disgraced in front of the fellow-citizens. From its stairs, the most important news was being announced on the Croatian language to the citizens.                 The Loggia has a lot of reliefs on the inside walls, some of which were destroyed in 1932 when locals tried to erase the images of Italian influence in the area.

The big relief on the south wall is representing Petru Berislaviću, Croatian viceroy, the opponent of Venetians and heroic fighter against the Turks. The relief is Ivan Mestrovic’s work, the most prominent and wide world known sculptor.

東牆是尼古拉‧佛羅倫斯(Nikola Firentinac)—義大利文藝復興大師唐納泰羅(Dontello)的學生—於西元1471年的作品,刻畫法官審判場景。當年此處是法庭所在地,法官座椅就在浮雕下。

The wooden ceiling of the loggia and its decorations is also worth of note.

*The Cipiko Palace                                                                                                                  The palace was built by Cipiko family and it is located in the town square right across from the Cathedral. The Ćipiko family ruled the reign around here for over 300 years and revered for their contribution to Trogir. The palace itself is a complex of several buildings, eventually merged into a unified whole. (The big and the small palace separated by the street.) The oldest walls date from the early Middle Ages, and most of the assembly created in the 13th century. The large new Venetian Gothic palace was built by Koriolan Ćipiko who won a large sea battle in 1476 and built monuments as part of his spoils of war and creating his legacy. The portal of the old smaller palace is decorated with three-light windows, and by them is a relief of the head of the poet and humanist, also the work of Ivan Duknovic.

*Cathedral of St. Lawrence                                                                                                 The Cathedral of St. Lawrence (Croatian: Katedrala Sv. Lovre) is a Roman Catholic three-nave basilica constructed in Romanesque-Gothic. It serves now as the most imposing monument in the city of Trogir.

It was built on the foundations of an early-Christian cathedral destroyed in the 12th century during the sack of the town by the Saracens in 1123. The present building was begun in 1213 and finished during the 17th century. Like the older one, it is also dedicated to St. Lawrence (Croatian: Sveti Lovro) but it is better known as St. John’s Cathedral (Croatian: Sveti Ivan). Most of the work in the construction of the cathedral took place in the 13th century, being mostly completed in 1251. That means the building is mainly in Romanesque style, whilst the vault inside is Gothic as it was built during the 15th century, in Mannerist style.                                                                                                                            Inside of the cathedral there are : octagonal stone pulpit from the 13th century; Gothic chorus benches; ciborium from the 14th century; paintings of the local and Italian masters; Gothic chapel of St. Jeronim from 1438; and chapel of the Blessed Ivan Ursini, the most beautiful renaissance monument in Dalmatia, the work of Nikola Firentinac from the 15th century.

*聖羅倫斯教堂鐘樓 (Bell Tower of the Cathedral of St Lawrence) — 哥德式 (西元十三~十七世紀)

On the top of the Bell Tower are the sculptures of the four evangelists.

Work on the Bell Tower began at the end of the 14th century, but it was not completed until the end of the 16th century. The tower is a good example of mixed architectural styles in Dalmatian because every level is done in a different style – from the Romanesque (lower level) and heavily decorated Gothic (middle level), to the Renaissance (upper level).

   Romanesque

   Gothic

   Renaissance

Visitors can climb the 154ft high tower to get a bird’s eye view of the city.

   Inside of the Bell Tower.

                         鐘樓裡築巢的鴿子

*聖羅倫斯教堂西側門 (Door of the Cathedral of St Lawrence) — 仿羅馬式 (西元十一~十六世紀末)                                                                                                                              The Cathedral of St. Lawrence is most known for its Romanesque portal carved in the 13th century by Croatian architect Master sculptor Radovan.
Radovan worked on the cathedral’s gateway (main west portal) early in its construction. Most of the portal was carved by the master himself, but some other hands are distinguishable, those of his pupils and followers. Finished and signed in 1240, it is a monumental and perhaps unique work of this great Croatian artist, of whom the inscription on the base of the lunette says: “the best of all in this artisanship".

In terms of its thematic concept, the portal is divided into two parts: upper and lower(doorposts).

The upper part shows scenes from the Gospels, that is, the life of Christ. On the lunette there is the scene of the Nativity, and inside the arch above the lunette there are angels looking adoringly at the scene. The lunette and this arch are the work of Master Radovan. Over them there is another arch which also shows scenes from the life of Christ.

On the interior of the doorposts there are pictures showing the various works done during the different seasons of the year. Radovan also worked on the two small columns covered in reliefs. On the exterior doorpost the saints and apostles are represented, the interior of the same posts are decorated with figures of exotic animals and fantastic creatures like centaurs and mermaids. Human forms dominate the portal. Both the internal and external doorposts rest on the back of bearers bent over, who are also the work of Radovan himself. Beside the portal, standing on the backs of two lions, stand the figures of our sinful ancestors, Adam and Eve.

*Baptistery (1464) — The most important preserved work of the sculptor Andrija Alesi.

A Renaissance bas-relief of Christ’s Baptism.

【卡梅爾倫哥堡壘Kastel Kamerlengo/ Kamerlengo Fortress】

On the south-western part of the islet, the Kamerlengo Fortress was erected soon after 1420, when Trogir became part of the Republic of Venice, in order to protect the sea channel and the port of Trogir. The fortress is a result of an addition t the original Tower of Chains which was built in 1380. It was built by Master Marin Radojev after the plans proposed by a Venetian military engineer Pincino da Bergamo. Today, it is irreplaceable summer stage and gazebo.

【Fortress of St. Marc】

To the north of Kamerlengo Foretress is the round tower of Saint Marko built by Venice in the 15th century. The Turkish threat resulted in improved fortifications. In the 17th century the bastions were built. They rise from the sea, and their remains are still visible in the narrow channel Foša na Fortinu. The small towers in the field of Trogir were the advance-guard of a strong fortification. Both city bridges were part of the city’s defense system.

附記:特羅吉爾是大麥町狗的原產地

本篇發表於 UNESCO, 旅途中, 步履間。將永久鏈結加入書籤。

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