Croatia: The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik (UNESCO 2000 World Cultural Heritage Site) — 文藝復興式 (十五~十七世紀) 2012/06/03

The St. Jacob’s, the cathedral of Šibenik, built for over a century, is a testimony of persistency, sacrifice and belief of the generations of inhabitants of Šibenik.
By many things it is unique not only in the Croatian architecture, but in the European as well: it is entirely built of stone, no other material being used; it is unique by the brave structure of stone slabs and ribs, with no binding material; it is also unique among renaissance churches by its trefoil front facade; finally, it is unique by the harmony of its architecture and the row of 71 realistic sculptural portraits around the apses. Documents preserved from the time of building of the cathedral evidence contributions from the entire community to its building, but from many individuals as well, including large number of domestic stone-dressers, builders and artisans. The most important among them is Juraj Matejev Dalmatinac, who came from Zadar and who the town of Šibenik commissioned in 1441 to take over the job of the proto-master of the cathedral of Šibenik. (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/963)

聖雅各大教堂(Katedrala Svetog Jakova/The Cathedral of St. James)歸劃於西元1402年,原本構想為威尼斯哥德風格,在耗時一個半世紀,於西元1555年完成時,卻轉變成托斯卡尼文藝復興風格建築。教堂主體沒有用到一根木頭,全部以白色石灰岩打造。石材來自以產白石聞名的布拉曲(Brac)、科楚拉(Korcula)等島嶼,以及拉布島(Rab)的紅色角礫大理石。

教堂興建彷彿一場接力賽,共經歷了四個階段:                                                                         第一階段 — 西元1431~1441年,主要以威尼斯籍的建築師 (Francesco Giacomo、 Antonio Busato and Lorenzo Pincino)及當地石匠(Andrija Budčić and Grubiša Statčić)主導,共同完成哥德式的下層建築體外觀鷹架和教堂的兩處入口。                                                                 第二階段 — 西元 1441~1475年,在建築師喬治‧達爾馬齊亞(Juraj Dalmatinac) 的領導之下,教堂轉變為文藝復興風格。他擴大了主教座堂,完成側廊獅子門(The Lion Gate ),還包括洗禮堂(Baptistery)、教堂後堂外牆檐口(Cornice) 圍繞的71顆人頭及3顆獅子頭雕像。第三階段 — 西元1475~1505年,由義大利建築師尼古拉‧佛羅倫斯(Nikola Firentinac)接續完成側廊祭壇、圓頂及筒形拱頂(Dome & Vault)。                                                                     第四階段 — 由建築師Bartol、Jakov 和 Mestičević 接手,於西元1555年完成整座教堂。

【教堂結構設計 Design】

                   The Šibenik Cathedral is a three-nave basilica 38 meters long and 14 meters wide, and its highest point is on the top of the cupola (38 meters). It was consecrated in 1555 by bishop Ivan Štafilić.

【獅子門 The Lion Gate】

面 對廣場的北翼,包含七扇簡單的哥德式拱形窗以及一座側門,其中以側門,也就是獅子門最吸引人。獅子門的石獅、八角形雕花石柱、亞當、夏娃等都出自於米蘭雕 刻家波尼諾(Bonino )之手。而亞當、夏娃上的聖龕華蓋裡,一尊是聖雅各、一尊是聖彼得,則是喬治‧達爾馬齊亞的作品。銅門浮雕描繪的是聖經的故事。

【後堂 Apse】

三面後堂外牆檐口上的71顆人頭及3顆獅子頭雕像,一眼便能攫住人的目光,成為教堂的一大特色。人頭雕像的構想來自喬治‧達爾馬齊亞,他以當時十五世紀旭本 尼克市民長相為藍本,雕刻出活潑生動的表情,十足表現出文藝復興早期人本主義的精神。

在人頭雕像上方的半露方柱上,還可以看到兩尊全裸小孩手持捲曲的羊皮 紙,上頭以拉丁人標示「這座後堂是1443年由Juraj Dalmatinac 所建造」。

【圓頂與拱頂 Dome & Vault】

                                            圓頂與拱頂完成於尼古拉‧佛羅倫斯之手,簡單的文藝復興形式,沒有太多雕琢,三座主要雕像立於圓頂的四方基座之上,聖馬可像(St. Mark)面海,聖米迦勒像(St. Michael)面對廣場,聖雅各像面對教堂後方。圓頂的基座有16扇窗並以一壁柱隔開。圓頂的8個面,由一片片石板組成,愈上頭愈窄,最後以拱頂石收緊;而3座筒形拱頂也是由一片片厚重的石板組成,這種組合技術,在世界建築史上可謂創舉。

【立面 Façade】

全歐洲最古老,由三扇葉型門組成的正門上的山行牆。

教堂立面的重點在於刻著「最後審判」的哥德式拱門,為米蘭雕刻家波尼諾(Bonino)的作品。

雕刻著新約聖經故事的銅門

大門兩側是兩扇哥德式拱形窗,用來照亮教堂內部的兩翼側殿。在主殿半圓山牆及側殿四分之一圓山牆下,也分別有四扇圓形玫瑰窗,同屬文藝復興風格裝飾。

內部祭壇 Interior Chapel

                                         教堂內部左右兩翼各有6座祭壇,立面內部兩側各有一座石棺。

【洗禮堂 Baptistery】                                                                                                                  In the Cathedral’s interior the baptistery draws particular attention because of its original and creative synthesis of two different art styles of the first half of the 15th century – late Gothic and early Renaissance.The Cathedral represents the first finished architecture in Renaissance style constructed only 20 years after the real beginning of the Renaissance in Tuscany. The most impressive feature of the baptistery is the abundance of sculptural decoration among which the human figure is the most represented one.Besides the sculptures of the four prophets (of which only two are preserved until today), the whole vault is decorated with reliefs of angels, cherubs’ heads and impressive head of Father God.

                                                                        The baptismal font is located in the center of the baptistery, carried by three plump naked boys in movement made by Juraj Dalmatinac.

廣告
本篇發表於 UNESCO, 旅途中, 步履間。將永久鏈結加入書籤。

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com Logo

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Google+ photo

您的留言將使用 Google+ 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

連結到 %s