Croatia: Šibenik 2012/06/03

旭本尼克(Sibenik)位於達爾馬齊亞海岸,是開啟克爾卡河河口歷史的城鎮,也是亞得里亞海域內最古老的城市。(Its name was mentioned for the first time in 1066, and it has enjoyed the status of a city and diocesan seat since 1298.)

                     The Šibenik bay, which is 10 km long and 300-1200 m wide, opens towards the sea and islands through a narrow curving channel. The coastal area of Šibenik stretches only a few kilometers from the sea, to the hilly range of Trtar, and in the southeast to the Svilaja Mountain.

旭本尼克也是達爾馬齊亞海岸少數沒有被羅馬及伊利里亞人(Illyrian)佔領過的地方,它的歷史由克羅埃西亞國王Petar Krešimir IV於十一世紀所開創。因此在旭本尼克舊城裡,看不到羅馬城市常見的寬闊馬路及豪華大宅,而是彎曲狹窄的巷道及矮小房舍。從十二世紀開始,威尼斯斷斷續續統治這個城市直到十八世紀末,今天所見到的舊城樣貌、大教堂、堡壘都是威尼斯時期奠下的基礎,同時也是克羅埃西亞境內文藝復興城市風格的活生生見證。         在興建聖雅各大教堂(St. Jacob’s Cathedral)之前,旭本尼克原本只是達爾馬齊亞海岸邊默默無聞的小城,居民們為了讓自己所住的城市能與其他達爾馬齊亞歷史名城並駕齊驅,於是興起了蓋一座大教堂的念頭。從政府、議會、主教、建築大師、到全體居民,上下一心,經過一個多世紀的努力,聖雅各大教堂的成就已經超越當年的夢想,不僅僅在達爾馬齊亞海岸地區,即便克羅埃西亞、歐洲,甚至全世界,這都是一座不朽的傑作:世界上最大一座不用木榫,磚頭,完全用岩石建造的教堂。

【Old City Core】

   Other than a number of sacral buildings, the cathedral, palaces (Rossini, Divinić, Gothic palaces, Pellegrin and others) portals, vaulted passages and similar, the old Šibenik core is expressed by the beauty of the city center square (Trg Republike Hrvatske) with City Hall,  St. Barbara Church, Dukes Palace and Bishops Palace.

*克羅埃西亞共和廣場 (Trg Republike Hrvatske/Central city square) – for a long time, the central city square was called PLATHEI COMMUNIS and later GOSPODSKI TRG (Gentleman’s Square). On that square, in 1750, Šibenik got its first café. For centuries this square was the center of public and social medieval life, as well as the battlefield during Venetian army attacks in 1378.

共和廣場上由伊凡‧梅什托維契(Ivan Mestrovic)所雕的喬治‧達爾馬齊亞(Juraj Dalmatinac)銅像~他是聖雅各大教堂建造過程中最偉大的建築師。

*City Hall – formerly known as Plathei Communis. It is a very harmonious and airy Renaissance style building built from 1533-1536. The ground floor includes porch with semi-circular arches supported by columns, which was an access to the former public utilities offices. On the first floor is the representative hall in which city councilmen would meet. In December 1943, during allied air strikes, the City Hall building was completely destroyed and was restored after the war, in its original shape and appearance, and the internal area was organized and equipped in accordance to the needs of new functions.

*The Church of St. Barbara – The church of St. Barbara is a monument of Gothic architecture. It is a single-nave church. The building of the church started at about 1400. Above the main entrance there is a Gothic niche with a sculpture of St. Nicholas, the work of the Italian artist Bonino from Milan.

The Gothic window with the votive sculpture in its bottom part was ordered by Šibenik’s doctor Marco in 1419 and was placed in the north wall. It’s a unique example of medieval relief featuring a doctor on the eastern Adriatic coast.

*Dukes Palace – is located on the shore in the old city core. Only two wings of this big building have been preserved, in which the highest representative of the Venetian government in the community, city duke-captain, lived and worked.

Gothic passage with the town gate passes through the central line of the ground-floor. The town coat-of-arms with the figure of St. Michael – the patron of the town – is above the town gate.

The west wing of the Duke’s palace is turned towards the sacristy and apse parts of the cathedral. Two doors with simple stone frames are on the south end of this part, and a niche with the Baroque sculpture of a man is between them. In 1975 the adaptation of the Duke’s palace for the Town Museum of Šibenik was completed.

*The Bishops Palace – leans up against the St. James Cathedral on the sea side. The Bishops Palace is a Gothic-Renaissance structure from the second half of the 15th century (1439-1441). After a number of interventions, the original look which can be seen in elements stored on the facade and in the courtyard (parts of the arcades, portals, triforium with stone sculpture) was lost.

Next to the palace is the old preserved Seagate, which is an entrance to the city from the shore.


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