Croatia: Krka National Park 2012/06/03

克爾卡國家公園 (Krka National Park) 設立於1985年 (the seventh national park in Croatia),位於旭本尼克 (Šibenik) 北方約12公里處,面積109平方公里,以石灰岩地形、洞穴、峭壁、流洩的七座瀑布 (Bilusica Buk、Brljan、Manojlovac Slap、Rosnjak、Miljacka Slap、Roski Slap、Skradinski Buk) 和兩個湖 (Skradin、Visovac) 聞名。

                         克爾卡河 (Krka River) 全長 72 . 5公里 (22nd longest river in Croatia),流經 Dinara 山脈西麓,在旭本尼克附近匯入亞得里亞海;當河流切穿石灰岩地形時,形成了落差達 242公尺的峽谷,而溶解出來的碳酸鈣和著藻類、苔蘚不斷沈澱、累積成石灰華台階,就像普列提維切湖一樣,水流經不同高低落差的台階,形成一道道瀑布。不過與普列提維切湖不同的是,克爾卡河從峽谷穿越出來時水量大多了,每秒 55 立方公尺的水量在到達最大的 Skradinski Buk 時,大水直洩而下,銀簾交纏堆疊,濺水成霧。                                   http://www.npkrka.hr/#/pocetna/?lang=eng&p=

There are five entrances to the park: Lozovac, Skradin, Roski Slap, Burnum and Kistanje. However, the entrances to Skradinski Buk are: Lozovac (by road) and Skradin (by river).

The park Information Center at Skradin contains a reception desk, a souvenir shop, and a multimedia gallery. The transportation of visitors by the boats of the Krka National Park is also organized here according to a timetable.

附記:依我們的行程,當然只能坐 bus 進國家公園,逛一個瀑布囉!…

Lozovac Entrance is the main road entrance to the Krka National Park for tourist buses and individual visitors.

【Skradinski Buk】

Skradinski Buk is the seventh, final, and longest travertine barrier on the Krka River. It is located approximately 13 km downstream from Roški slap and a total of 49 km downstream from the source. The growth of travertine barriers at Skradinski Buk was caused by the unification of the waters of Krka River with the 3 km lower current of the Čikola River at Roški Slap, creating one of the most unusual and beautiful landscapes of the Krka National Park.

   The combined waters of the Krka and Čikola Rivers flow over the 17 steps( cascades) at Skradinski Buk, distributed along the 800 m in length. The width of the cascades is between 200 and 400 m with a total height difference of 45.7 m. Travertine formations in the upper portion of the river include thresholds, travertine islands, draperies and barriers, while the lower portion has caves and tufts.

橫跨克爾卡河的木橋,是欣賞 Skradinski Buk 和 Krka River 的絕佳地點。

Bathing is permitted at Skradinski Buk.

*Educational Trail

                                                                                                       架勢十足的當地導遊 Meri – Big Mama

A walking trail has been constructed over the river. The trail takes you on a 60 minute light walk through the deep shade of lush Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean vegetation, which offers the exceptional possibility of direct contact with the unique microcosms of mystical sounds, lights, colors, the mysterious world of travertine mosses and numerous plant species of the travertine barriers and aquatic habitats.

*The “Krka” Hydroelectric Plant

On the left riverbank, there are the remains of the first hydroelectric power plant in Croatia. The Krka hydroelectric power plant (later called Jaruga I) was put into operations on 28 August 1895, only two days after Tesla’s hydroelectric plant at the Niagara Falls. It was in operation until World War I when it was decommissioned for military purposes. Thanks to its builders, Šibenik mayor Ante Supuk, his son Marko Supuk and the engineer Vjekoslav Meichsner, the nearby city of Šibenik received electric energy before many other European cities. Today’s Jaruga II hydroelectric power plant was constructed in 1904.

*Ethno Presentations                                                                                                             The water mills in the Krka National Park belong to a system of pre-industrial water-based facilities along the Krka River. The preserved mills are from the 19th century and have exceptional cultural and historical significance as monuments of rural architecture and the economic past.                                                                                              In the renovated water-mills of the Krka National Park, presentations are made of the milling of grain, the washing and trading of cloth, the weaving of bags and rug, the smiting of horseshoes, plowing, sowing, and winnowing, the preparation of food in an old-fashioned kitchen, and more.

   Stamp Mill

   Fulling Mill

  

p.s. The historical sources testify about the existence of mills on Skradinski Buk in the 12th century,possibly even earlier. From the 19th century on, the watermill was replaced with steam mills and electrical mills.

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