Croatia: Pula — 90km — Opatija 2012/06/01

普拉 Pula http://www.pulainfo.hr/en/

普拉位於克羅埃西亞西北邊的伊斯特利亞半島 (Istria Peninsula) 南端,是該半島上最古老、最大的城市及商業大港。普拉在西元前一世紀就被羅馬人所征服,並成為區域的行政中心,至今仍留有許多羅馬人的遺蹟,儼然是一座羅馬城。普拉儘管後來歷經拜占庭、威尼斯、哈布斯堡王朝的統治及外侮,城市遭受極大破壞,但羅馬人當年所規劃的城市格局,歷經2000年,後人仍無法超越。

【羅馬圓形競技場 Roman Amfiteatar/Amphitheater- Arena of Pula】— 羅馬古典時期 (西元一 ~ 五世紀)

This spectacular art installation, tied around Arena in Pula was created by Marijan Busic on October 18th (World Cravat Day) in 2003.  This astonishing necktie, weighing 450 kg, 808 m long, maximal width 25 m, took two days and hundreds of people to build.

普拉的圓形競技場是目前全世界僅存六座大型競技場中的一座,建築年代約在西元一世紀,是以當地的石灰岩所打造,與羅馬的圓形競技場幾乎同一個時間完成,占據港灣邊最有利位置,也是唯一一座完整保存四邊塔樓與三種古希臘柱式的競技場。最早由羅馬皇帝奧古斯都 (Augustus,27 BC – AD 14) 所建造,原本只是一座小型的木造競技場,後來在維斯帕先 (Vespasian,AD 67 – 79,羅馬圓形競技場的建造者) 時期,才將它擴大成為專門供人觀賞神鬼戰士和獅虎豹角鬥之用。                                                                                                         競技場設有20個出入口,橢圓長軸距離132.45公尺,短軸則是105.1公尺。在西元15世紀之前,競技場都還保存得非常完整,但在Honorius皇帝禁止鬥獸後,威尼斯人拆掉競技場部分石塊來建造城堡及其他建築。今日鬥獸場面雖已不復見,競技場卻成為普拉重要的文化、藝術表演場地,也是當地重要的觀光資源。

內部看台:競技場最早的設計可供23000名觀眾觀賞鬥獸場面,後來為了方便觀眾出入及欣賞表演,1932年座位區重新規劃,目前可容納5000~8000名觀眾進場。

 拱門    廊道                         拱門和廊道:競技場一、二樓分別有72座拱門,三樓則開有64道四方形開口,拱門提供內部廊道的照明,而廊道是為了讓觀眾從一區移動到另一區,並迅速地找到自己的位置。

外牆:面對海港的三層樓外牆還保存得非常完整,牆高30.45公尺,由於競技場建於傾斜的山丘上,面對內陸的外牆只有兩層樓。

塔門:外牆的結構還包括4座塔門,每個塔門的頂端各有兩個蓄水槽,用來收集雨水;以前也會在蓄水槽裡裝滿加了香精的水,並在適當的時候向觀眾噴灑。

【Twin Gates and City Walls】                                                                                              In ancient and medieval times the whole city was surrounded by walls and was entered through about ten gates. The walls had become old and unnecessary so they were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. Parts of the walls between the Twin Gates and the Giardini square  have been preserved until today.                                                                       
The Twin Gates, thus called because of the two arches through which you enter the inner yard, which was once the entrance to the city, were constructed between the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The Twin Gates today lead to the Archeological Museum and the Castle.

【塞爾吉凱旋門 Slavoluk Obitelji Sergijevaca /Triumphal Arch of the Sergi- Golden Gate】                                                                                                                            The “Golden Gate” was erected between the years 29 and 27 BC by the Sergi family, in honor of three members of the family who held important positions in Pula at that time. This triumphal arch leaned against the city gate Porta Aurea thus called because of its richly ornamented arch or gilded elements. The gate and wall were pulled down in the beginning of the 19th century as a result of the city expansion outside the city walls.
The Arch was constructed in Corinthian style with strong Hellenistic and Asia Minor influences both in the method and ornaments. As the eastern side was not visible it has remained for the most part uncarved, while the western, town side is richly decorated.

Today numerous cultural performances, theatrical and musical, are held on the square next to the eastern side of Arch.

向城一面的拱門以四根科林斯式圓柱支撐,上頭刻著馬拉車,以及老鷹展翅以鷹爪攫巨蟒,象徵勝利的淺浮雕。

【羅馬議事廣場 Forum】                                                                                                         The main square of classical and medieval Pula is situated at the foot of the central hill, in the western part of the city close to the sea. The coast where the Forum was constructed in the 1st century BC had to be filled up to gain a larger area. The Forum was the nucleus of city life, its religious, administrative, legislative and commercial center. On the northern part of the Forum stood two twin temples and a central one dedicated to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. Today only the Temple of Augustus has been fully preserved while of the second temple only the back wall, built into the Communal Palace in the 13th century, is visible.

【奧古斯都神廟 Augustov Hram /Temple of Augustus                                             神廟面對羅馬議事廣場,是廣場上僅存的羅馬建築,建造時間約在西元前2年~ 西元14年之間,是當地獻給羅馬天神及羅馬皇帝奧古斯都的神殿。這是一座非常典型的羅馬式建築,以簡單的線條構成,長17公尺,寛6公尺,正面豎立六根科 林斯式圓柱,讓整座神廟看起來更立體。羅馬帝國隨著其後的君士坦丁大帝信奉基督並於西元313年頒佈詔書公告基督教會的合法地位後,神殿便改作教堂之用, 到了19世紀,又變成穀倉。二次世界大戰期間,神廟遭受炸彈轟擊,幾乎全毁,戰後西元1947年才被修復。神殿現在成為博物館,珍藏著石器與銅器的雕刻 品。

【舊市政廳 Gradska Vijecnica/Communal Palace】                                                     At the time when Pula was a free municipality, a palace was erected in the Forum – the seat of the municipal self-government. During the Venetian rule it was the seat of the duke and provveditore, and until the present has remained the seat of the mayor. Additions over the centuries (from the 10th -16th centuries) led to a building that in an exceptional way combines architectural styles from the Romanesque until the Renaissance. The inscription built in the facade, which was restored in the 16th century, dates the construction of the Communal Palace to 1296. The year probably refers to the first greater reconstruction and addition, because this was surely the seat of the municipal government even earlier.

【大教堂 Kandlerova/Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary】                                                                                                                                        Within the city, along the main street that from Flavia Street leads to the Forum, stands the Cathedral of Pula. It was built at the site where Christians gathered already in the time of their persecution (until the 4th century). With the ages it grew larger and assumed its present-day shape in the 5th century. It had an elongated oblong shape whose interior was divided by two rows of columns. The area around the altar was in the north, defined by a semi-circular podium with stalls for the clergy. In front of the altar area, behind it and around the very altar, still lie fragments of the floor mosaic from the 5th – 6th centuries, with memorial inscriptions of worshipers who paid for the decoration of the specific surface.
The oldest preserved remains of the church wall from the beginning of the 4th century can be seen from outside: the lower part of the rear wall belongs to this period. Due to a fire in 1242 the church underwent reconstruction on several occasions. While the upper windows of the nave were built in the early Christian period, the windows of the aisles bear typical Gothic traits. In front of the church, a baptistery, cross-shaped by ground plan, was built in the 5th century. It was destroyed in 1885.

In the beginning of the 16th century a new late Renaissance facade was built, and in front of the church, a belfry was erected in the second half of the 17th century (1671-1707). Stone blocks from the Amphitheater were used for its construction.

附記:

                                                                                                    Pula 街頭一人一狗的有趣畫面

 

歐帕提亞 Opatijahttp://www.opatija-tourism.hr/en/Home.aspx?PageID=1

Located at the edge of the Mediterranean, on the slopes of Mount Učka (1401 m high) gently descending towards the coast of Kvarner Bay, Opatija with its local climate, beautiful architecture, quality hotels and luxurious, well-tended parks and promenades, offers plenty of possibilities for a pleasant stay throughout the year.                                        Opatija, often called the pearl of the Adriatic, is one of Croatia’s most famous destinations, boasting a tradition of welcoming visitors dating back more than 160 years.
The notable person who first discovered the magic of Opatija was Iginio Scarpa, a merchant from Rijeka who built his holiday home here in 1844 and named it the Villa Angiolina after his late wife. This event marked the beginning of tourism in Opatija. After that, Opatija started intensely developing under the supervision of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

【安裘莉娜別墅 Villa Angiolina/ Park Angiolina】— 新古典形式的設計風格

Park Angiolina built in 1844 by a patrician from Rijeka, merchant Higin Scarpa who named it after his late spouse Angiolina. In 1875 the villa was sold to Moravian count Victor Chorinsky. In 1882 Conut Chorinsky sells the villa to the Southern Railways Company from Vienna.

【卡瓦納飯店Hotel Kvarner— 亞得里亞海上第一家旅館                                      Director of the Austrian Southern Railway Company Friedrich Schüler and its shareholders wanted to improve passenger traffic to the south. After choosing Opatija as the region’s most promising destination, they started building the first hotel in this new bathing and climatic health resort, advertising it widely as the “Austrian Nice". Several important facilities were built alongside the first hotel: a pavilion with indoor pool for warm sea baths, a bathing place with separate areas for ladies and gentlemen, and the 12-kilometre-long coastal promenade from Volosko to Opatija and further to Lovran.

The hotel was opened on the 27th March 1884. Its original name was Hotel Quarnero, and it offered its visitors 60 rooms.

海濱步道 Lungomare】                                                                                                       This 12-km-long coastal promenade joins up the main points along the Opatija Riviera – Volosko, Opatija, Ičići, Ika and Lovran. Undisturbed by traffic, this walk along the sea front presents a wonderful opportunity to escape the stresses of everyday life.

Construction of the promenade began in 1885, at the same time as Opatija’s first two hotels was being opened (The Kvarner in 1884, The Imperial in 1885), and was completed in 1889 when Opatija was declared a climatic health resort.                                                          In 1911, during the period of greatest expansion of tourism along the Riviera, the promenade was connected to the neighboring city of Lovran.

【少女與海鷗 Maiden with the Seagull】                                                                                    歐帕提亞最著名的地標應該就是這座佇立於海岸邊的雕像:少女與海鷗。這裡以前是尊“聖母瑪麗亞 Madonna del Mare”的雕像,是紀念葬身於西元1891年一場大浪中的伯爵 Arthur Kesselstadt,後來這尊雕像被遺到聖雅各教堂。西元1956年才由雕刻家Car在原址重新建了這座“少女與海鷗”雕像。

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