Slovenia: Ljubljana 2012/05/31

Ljubljana Basics http://www.visitljubljana.com/

The Capital of the Republic of Slovenia: a European Union member state since 2004, the World Book Capital 2010                                                                                                            Area: 275 km2                                                                                                                   Population: 280000                                                                                                               Average Temperature in January: -0.3°C                                                                          Average Temperature in June: 20.7°C

盧布里亞納 (Ljubljana) 於西元1992年斯洛維尼亞獨立後成為斯洛維尼亞共和國的首都和政治、文化中心。雖然作為首都的歷史不長,但盧布里亞納卻是一座古老的城市,從西元前34年羅馬人在這兒開墾建城,西元六世紀末斯拉夫人擴建到盧布里亞納河,盧布里亞納建城已超過兩千年。碧綠的盧布里亞納河自西南流向東北,從巍巍的山丘城堡山腳下悠悠走過,右岸是中世紀混合巴洛克式的舊城區,左岸則是新古典融合新藝術風格的新城區,以及占地遼闊的公園綠地。西元1895年盧布里亞納遭逢史無前例的毀滅性大地震,直到第一次世界大戰過後,全城進行大改造,由出身於盧布里亞納的建築師普雷契尼克 (Jože Plečnik,1872~1957,在近代建築史上享有後現代主義先知的美譽) 操刀,他把古埃及、希臘、羅馬、拜占庭、伊斯蘭,以及斯洛維尼亞等文化的建築元素融入了原本的巴洛克與新藝術風格,重建了市中心和盧布里亞納河河堤。盧布里亞納今日會成為一座美麗而宜人居住的城市,普雷契尼克居功厥偉。

The unique oeuvre of the architect Jože Plečnik:                                                      

The famous architect Jože Plečnik (1872-1957) tried to model Ljubljana on ancient Athens. The multitude of his creations in the city, referred to as a whole as “Plečnik’s Ljubljana", is considered to be one of the 20th century’s most important total works of art.              Plečnik left a lasting mark on three central European cities: Vienna, Prague and Ljubljana. According to Friedrich Achleitner, a renowned art critic from Vienna, Plečnik with his singular style may come to be considered an architect of the future.                                       In Vienna, where he studied under professor Otto Wagner, Plečnik designed a number of pioneering works of modern architecture. In Prague he undertook, among other things, the renovation of Prague Castle for use as the presidential residence and re-landscaped of the castle gardens.                                                                                                                             Upon returning to Ljubljana in 1921, Plečnik accepted the post of professor at the newly established University of Ljubljana and focused all his creative energies to designing the city.
In designing Ljubljana, the nation’s new capital, Plečnik tried to use modern approaches while modeling the city on ancient Athens. His style, innovative even by today’s standards, is characterized by the use of classical architectural elements, such as pillars, lintels, balustrades and colonnades, redesigned and combined in the master architect’s own special way.

【Central Market – market halls by architect Jože Plečnik】                             

Until the earthquake of 1895, the Vodnikov trg square, now the site of Ljubljana’s Central Market had been occupied by a diocesan college. Later, the Municipality of Ljubljana intended to build a new town hall there, but the plan was changed after it had been established that the existing meat market halls, situated at a nearby river embankment, no longer complied with hygiene regulations.                                                                            The present market, built by the architect Jože Plečnik between 1940 and 1944, was conceived as a two-storey range of riverside market halls following the curve of the river.

On the side overlooking the river, the market halls were furnished with large semi-circular windows, and on the side overlooking the street adorned with a colonnade.

  

The whole complex, reflecting Renaissance influences, was covered with a roof of massive concrete tiles. Plečnik planned to fill the gap in the range of market halls with a monumental covered bridge to connect the market-side embankment with the Petkovškovo nabrežje embankment, but the bridge, which was supposed to be called the Butchers’ Bridge, was never built.                                                                                           When a little later a decision was taken to connect the market with the Triple Bridge, Plečnik built a flower shop resembling the temples of classical antiquity next to the bridge and connected it with the market by adding another roofed colonnade. The additional colonnade now provides shelter for stalls selling herbs, spices, and art and craft items.

【Triple Bridge】                                                                                                                     

The central of the three bridges forming the Triple Bridge has stood in its place since 1842, when it replaced an old, strategically important medieval wooden bridge connecting the north-western European lands with south-eastern Europe and the Balkans. Between 1929 and 1932, the side bridges, intended for pedestrians, were added to the original stone bridge to a design by the architect Jože Plečnik, who thus created a unique architectural gem of Ljubljana.                                                                                                                       Plečnik removed the metal railings from the old stone bridge and furnished all the three bridges with massive stone balustrades and lamps. From each of the side bridges, two stairways lead to terraces situated just above the river, where poplar trees were planted to contribute to the overall appearance of the Bridge.

【屠夫橋 Mesarski Most /Butchers’ Bridge】

這座連接中央市場和堤岸碼頭的步行橋直到西元2010年才興建落成,風格迥異於左右兩側的三重橋和飛龍橋,橋上有幾尊雕像為斯洛維尼亞當代知名雕塑家Jakov Brdar 的作品。

屠夫橋左側的三重橋                           

屠夫橋右側的飛龍橋

此橋之所以稱為屠夫橋,是因為橋的位置過去正好是中央市場肉販的攤位,而雕像所要訴說的也就是以往市場攤販的故事。

【飛龍橋 Zmajski Most/ Dragon Bridge】— 新藝術或分離派 (十九世紀末~二十世紀初) — 為紀念維也納哈布斯堡王朝 (Habsburg) 法藍茲‧約瑟夫 (Franz Josef) 皇帝加冕40週年而建造

Ljubljana’s earliest significant Art Nouveau creation was the Dragon Bridge, built between 1900 and 1901. It is Slovenia’s first bridge paved with asphalt, Ljubljana’s first reinforced concrete bridge and one of the earliest reinforced concrete bridges in Europe. Its designer was Professor Josef Melan, a famous engineer specializing in reinforced concrete bridge engineering and the father of the theory underlying static calculations for large arched bridges.

   The Art Nouveau appearance of the Dragon Bridge is due to the Dalmatian architect Jurij Zaninović, who studied under Professor Otto Wagner. He designed the Bridge’s decorative concrete covering, balustrades and sheet-copper dragon statues, which became a symbol of Ljubljana. Zaninović’s original design envisaged winged lions instead of dragons. The lamps on the balustrades, which used to be fuelled by gas, are part of the Bridge’s original decoration.

【The Cathedral – Church of St. Nicholas】                                                               

The site of the Cathedral was originally occupied by a three-nave Romanic church whose earliest mention dates back to 1262. After the fire of 1361 it was re-vaulted in the Gothic style. When the Ljubljana Diocese was established in 1461, the church underwent several alterations and additions. In 1469 it was burnt down, presumably by the Turks.       Between 1701 and 1706, a new Baroque hall church with side chapels shaped in the form of the Latin cross was built to a design by the Jesuit architect Andrea Pozzo. As the church’s dome was only built in 1841, originally a fake dome was painted on the arch above the centre of the cross. The surviving Baroque interior decoration notably includes frescoes by Giulio Quaglio (painted in the periods 1703-1706 and 1721-1723), Angelo Putti’s statues of four bishops of Emona situated beneath the beams of the dome (1712-1713), Putti’s painting of Dean Janez Anton Dolničar (1715), who initiated the rebuilding of the church in 1701, Francesco Robba’s altar angels in the left part of the nave (1745-1750) and brothers Paolo and Giuseppe Groppelli’s altar angels in the right part of the nave (1711).               One of the more interesting is the dome fresco painted by Matevž Langus in 1844.

                                                             The most outstanding 20th century additions include Tone Demšar’s main entrance door relief depicting the history of Slovenia, commissioned to mark the 1250th anniversary of Christianity in Slovenia, and Mirsad Begić’s side doors with portraits of bishops.

         教堂旁的市集廣場,擺滿了季節性水果、蔬菜、花草等攤位,五顏六色好不熱鬧!

【方濟會報喜教堂 Franciscan Church】                                                                            

The Franciscan Monastery is the building contributing most significantly to the appearance of the Prešernov trg square, the central square in Ljubljana. 這座巴洛克風格,外觀呈粉紅色調的方濟會報喜教堂,建於西元1646年,幾經擴大、重建,直到西元1895年大地震過後,才確立了今日的樣貌。

前面這棟建築是義大利風格的中央藥局 (Centralna Lekarna) — 為盧布里亞納歷史最悠久的藥房。旁邊屋頂有著商業之神 (Mercury) 雕像的建築是屋爾班宮殿 (Palaca Urbanc) — 這棟分離主義 (Secessionist) 建築建於西元1903年,是盧布里亞納高檔的精品百貨購物中心。

【普雷雪倫紀念雕像 Preseren Monument】

這座雕像是為了紀念斯洛維尼亞最偉大的詩人法藍斯‧普雷雪倫 (France Preseren, 1800 – 1849),由Maks Fabiani 和Ivan Zajc兩位藝術家於西元1905年所設計,普雷雪倫雕像後方則是繆思女神。                                                                                                                                 普雷雪倫為十九世紀斯洛維尼亞民族主義的重要提倡者,他的詩作充滿愛與自由,其中一首詩還成為今天斯洛維尼亞的國歌,而其肖像也出現在斯洛維尼亞所發行的2歐元硬幣上。

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